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COMMERCIAL BUILDING ENERGY AUDITS PRESENTATION. for NEW MEXICO ASSOCIATION OF ENERGY ENGINEERS Albuquerque, New Mexico February 22, 2011 by Donald E. Swick , PE. COMMERCIAL BUILDING ENERGY AUDITS PRESENTATION. Following ASHRAE Procedures for Commercial Building Energy Audits

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commercial building energy audits presentation

COMMERCIAL BUILDING ENERGY AUDITS PRESENTATION

for

NEW MEXICO ASSOCIATION

OF ENERGY ENGINEERS

Albuquerque, New Mexico

February 22, 2011

by

Donald E. Swick, PE

commercial building energy audits presentation2

COMMERCIAL BUILDING ENERGY AUDITS PRESENTATION

Following

ASHRAE Procedures for

Commercial Building Energy Audits

Published by ASHRAE in 2004

Research Project 669 developed standard

format for reporting results of analysis.

Special Project 56 developed scope of work

for various levels of analysis.

goals of training session

GOALS OF TRAINING SESSION

Understand current demand for Energy Audits

Define four levels of energy audits and application

Know level of effort expected for each type of audit

Understand Energy Star Target Finder benchmarking

Know limitations of simple payback energy analysis

Exposure to various energy analysis software tools

Awareness of requirements for life cycle cost analysis

Identify final Report presentation requirements

energy audit objectives

ENERGY AUDIT OBJECTIVES

The objectives of an energy analysis or audit are to identify and develop modifications that will reduce the energy use and/or cost of operating a building. The results should be presented in a format that will provide the information needed by an owner/operator to decide if any or all of the recommended modifications should be implemented.

current drivers for energy audit services

CURRENT DRIVERS FOR ENERGY AUDIT SERVICES

Demand for energy audit services can be attributed to one or more of the following items:

Increasing impact of utility costs on overall operation cost of buildings

Competitive real estate market now including energy ranking as a factor in purchasing a building.

State and local energy conservation codes requiring higher efficiency for new construction, and building additions or retrofit projects

Federal, state and local governments and corporate policies demands construction and occupancy in “LEED Certified or Green Buildings”

10 common problems in energy audits

10 COMMON PROBLEMS IN ENERGY AUDITS

Reference ASHRAE Journal February 2011

10. Inadequate review (30% of Audits)

Overestimated savings (53% of Audits)

In adequate billing analysis (57% of Audits)

Poor Building description (60% of Audits)

Low (or missing) installed costs (60% of Audits)

10 common problems in energy audits8

10 COMMON PROBLEMS IN ENERGY AUDITS

Reference ASHRAE Journal February 2011

5. Poor improvement selection (63% of Audits)

4. No Life-cycle costing (73% of Audits)

3. Improvement life too long or not provided (73% of Audits)

2. Weak improvement scope (77% of Audits)

1. Missed improvements (80% of Audits)

10 common problems in energy audits9

10 COMMON PROBLEMS IN ENERGY AUDITS

Neglected at least three improvement

High efficiency HVAC

High efficiency Domestic Hot Water

High efficiency Lighting

Lighting Power Density

Lighting Control

Wall or Roof Insulation

Motor Drives

HVAC Controls

Fenestration Treatment

key elements of audit

KEY ELEMENTS OF AUDIT

Analysis of current energy consumption.

Description and analysis of existing energy using systems.

Presentation of engineering and economic analysis.

analysis of current energy consumption

ANALYSIS OF CURRENT ENERGY CONSUMPTION

Obtain two or more years of utility data, review building plans and conduct site walk-through to establish:

Type building, principal use, and floor area, ft2

Annual Energy Utilization Index, kBtu / ft2

Annual Energy Cost Index, $ / ft2

Breakdown spaces by function, use and area.

Determine maintenance problems or practices affecting energy efficiency

Conduct Benchmarking to compare energy and cost indices with similar facilities

description and analysis of existing energy systems

DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS OF EXISTING ENERGY SYSTEMS

Description and analysis of the energy-using systems of this building, resulting from on-site observations, measurement, and engineering calculation, including:

Envelope (wall, roof, floor, slab, windows, doors skylights)

Lighting (interior and exterior)

HVAC

Domestic hot water

Equipment

Food preparation

Conveying systems

Other systems

presentation of energy and economic analysis

PRESENTATION OF ENERGY AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

As result of engineering analysis and economic calculations, develop:

Breakdown of the components of annual energy use and cost

Recommended energy conservation measures including predicted savings and cost to implement

Description and cost estimate of necessary repairs in order for energy conservation measures to be effective

A description and cost estimated of measurement and verification methods needed to determine project effectiveness

Energy analysis summary

Present and target energy use and cost

Savings from recommended measures and comparison to ultimate target

procedures for energy audit and anlysis

PROCEDURES FOR ENERGY AUDIT AND ANLYSIS

Provide sufficient information for the owner/operator to understand:

Breakdown of the components of annual energy use and cost

Need to commit necessary resources for building energy costs, operation and maintenance costs including personnel, and any energy efficiency capital improvement projects

Appropriateness of recommended measures, based on institutional and organization issues (i.e. regulatory environment, financial options, and occupant requirements)

Understand different levels of energy analysis can be performed based on specific purpose of owner from simple ranking of building energy usage, to contemplating major energy-saving capital improvements requiring significant level of confidence in results of engineering and economic analysis

categories of energy audit and engineering analysis

CATEGORIES OF ENERGY AUDIT AND ENGINEERING ANALYSIS

As result of various needs of building owner, the levels of analysis are organized into the following categories:

Preliminary Energy Use Analysis

Level I Analysis – Walk-Through Analysis

Level II Analysis – Energy Survey and Analysis

Level III Analysis – Detailed Analysis of Capital Intensive Modifications

preliminary energy use analysis details

PRELIMINARY ENERGY USE ANALYSIS -DETAILS

Potential Owner Interface and Information

Executive Management - Corporate goals

Facility Managers - Drawing, maintenance policies, previous energy conservation projects, schedule of facilities.

preliminary energy use analysis details17

PRELIMINARY ENERGY USE ANALYSIS -DETAILS

Review of Utility Data

Show examples of data for various facilities and explain what we can determine from the data about a facility

Determine potential local utility rebate programs

preliminary energy use analysis details18

PRELIMINARY ENERGY USE ANALYSIS -DETAILS

EPA Energy Star Benchmarking

Demonstrate Energy Star Target Finder analysis (based on U.S. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey)

https://www.energystar.gov/istar/pmpam/

preliminary energy use analysis details19

PRELIMINARY ENERGY USE ANALYSIS -DETAILS

EPA Energy Star Benchmarking

Demonstrate Energy Star Target Finder analysis (based on U.S. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey)

http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=new_bldg_design.bus_target_finder

preliminary energy use analysis details21

PRELIMINARY ENERGY USE ANALYSIS -DETAILS

EPA Energy Star Benchmarking

U.S. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey)

http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cbecs/cbecs2003/detailed_tables_2003/detailed_tables_2003.html#consumexpen03

preliminary energy use analysis report

PRELIMINARY ENERGY USE ANALYSIS - REPORT

Provide description of facility, occupancy, usage and floor area.

Present Summary Table / Graph of Utility Bills

Annual totals per fuel, average cost ($/unit) and cost per sq. ft. floor area

Present results of Energy Star Target Finder

Present preliminary list of potential operation, maintenance and energy efficiency projects for further analysis.

level i analysis walk through service details

LEVEL I ANALYSIS – WALK THROUGH SERVICE -DETAILS

Complete steps of a Preliminary Audit.

Potential Owner Interface and Information

Facility Managers - Compare drawing to actual facility conditions, ask about equipment replacement plans, maintenance procedures, effectiveness of previous energy conservation projects, operation and schedule of equipment and facilities.

level i analysis walk through service details24

LEVEL I ANALYSIS – WALK THROUGH SERVICE -DETAILS

Existing Building Survey Information - Review drawings and documentation

Envelope components (Wall Roof, Floor, Windows, Doors, Skylights, etc.)

HVAC Systems equipment components and control strategies

Lighting fixture types and controls

Other energy usage systems

Occupancy information

level i analysis walk through service details25

LEVEL I ANALYSIS – WALK THROUGH SERVICE -DETAILS

Identify savings and cost analysis for low cost/no cost measures

Lighting retrofits having fastest payback

Better controls systems or strategies

Obvious energy wasting operation (i.e. malfunctioning equipment, simultaneous heating and cooling)

Include utility rebates in cost analysis

level i analysis walk through service details26

LEVEL I ANALYSIS – WALK THROUGH SERVICE -DETAILS

Provide a list of potential capital improvement measures (further analysis required)

Building envelope feature (i.e. tinting or insulated windows, better roof insulation)

HVAC retrofits including higher efficiency equipment, VFD for fans and pumps, improved building automation controls)

Lighting retrofit requiring significant investment such as LED light sources, high bay and light poles.

level i analysis walk through service report

LEVEL I ANALYSIS – WALK THROUGH SERVICE - REPORT

Provide description of facility, occupancy, usage and floor area.

Present Summary Table / Graph of Utility Bills Annual totals per fuel, average cost ($/unit) and cost per sq. ft. floor area

Quantify savings potential of changing eligible alternate fuel rate structures.

Present results of Energy Star Target Finder

level i analysis walk through service report28

LEVEL I ANALYSIS – WALK THROUGH SERVICE - REPORT

Summary of special problems or needs identified for operational or maintenance procedures.

Preliminary end use energy breakdown estimate of major energy using components of the building.

level i analysis walk through service report29

LEVEL I ANALYSIS – WALK THROUGH SERVICE - REPORT

List of low cost/no cost savings estimate of energy savings.

List of potential capital improvement projects with initial estimate of energy savings and installation costs.

level ii analysis energy survey and analysis details

LEVEL II ANALYSIS – ENERGY SURVEY AND ANALYSIS -DETAILS

Complete steps of a Level I Walk Through Analysis services

Potential Owner Interface and Information

Executive Managemenr - Corporate financial criteria and guidelines

Facility Managers - Discuss potential energy conservation projects to compliment equipment replacement plans, anticipated changes to operation and schedule of equipment and facilities.

level ii analysis energy survey and analysis details31

LEVEL II ANALYSIS – ENERGY SURVEY AND ANALYSIS -DETAILS

Potential Owner Interface and Information (cont.)

Operators and Technicians - Status of current equipment, validation of operational controls, existing problems areas, actual maintenance level of implementation, and modification not shown on drawings

level ii analysis energy survey and analysis details32

LEVEL II ANALYSIS – ENERGY SURVEY AND ANALYSIS -DETAILS

Existing Building On-Site Survey Information, validate drawings and other documentation

Envelope components (Wall Roof, Floor, Windows, Doors, Skylights, etc.)

HVAC Systems components and control strategies and setpoints

Lighting fixture types, quantities and controls

Equipment schedules , space and occupancy information

level ii analysis energy survey and analysis details33

LEVEL II ANALYSIS – ENERGY SURVEY AND ANALYSIS -DETAILS

Breakdown of energy use within building

Provide estimate based on Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration

Conduct preliminary energy analysis with energy simulation software (i.e eQuest, Trane Tracer or Carrier HAP-Wizard level).

selection of energy analysis software

SELECTION OF ENERGY ANALYSIS SOFTWARE

http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/qualified_software.html

equest energy analysis software

eQuest ENERGY ANALYSIS SOFTWARE

http://doe2.com/equest/index.html

trane trace 700 energy analysis software

TRANE TRACE 700 ENERGY ANALYSIS SOFTWARE

http://www.trane.com/Commercial/DNA/View.aspx?i=1136

carrier hap energy analysis software

CARRIER HAP ENERGY ANALYSIS SOFTWARE

http://www.commercial.carrier.com/commercial/hvac/general/0%2C%2CCLI1_DIV12_ETI496_MID4355%2C00.html

level ii analysis energy survey and analysis details38

LEVEL II ANALYSIS – ENERGY SURVEY AND ANALYSIS -DETAILS

Identify recommended changes to operation and maintenance activities

Provide energy savings and cost analysis (i.e. simple payback) of practical measures that meet owners constraints and capital improvement criteria

Building envelope feature (i.e. tinting or insulated windows, skylights)

level ii analysis energy survey and analysis details39

LEVEL II ANALYSIS – ENERGY SURVEY AND ANALYSIS -DETAILS

Provide energy savings and cost analysis (cont.)

HVAC retrofits involving complete replacement of existing systems including higher efficiency equipment, VFD for fans and pumps, improved building automation controls

Lighting retrofit replacing MV or HID High bay fixtures with T5 Reflective High bay Fixtures or LED lamps for more efficient lamp/fixture systems.

Include utility rebates in cost analysis

abb fan saver software

ABB FAN SAVER SOFTWARE

  • http://www.abb.com/product/seitp322/5b6810a0e20d157fc1256f2d00338395.aspx
abb pump saver software

ABB PUMP SAVER SOFTWARE

http://www.abb.com/product/seitp322/5fcd62536739a42bc12574b70043c53a.aspx

level ii analysis energy survey and analysis details42

LEVEL II ANALYSIS – ENERGY SURVEY AND ANALYSIS -DETAILS

Provide a list of capital intensive improvement that require further data and analysis.

Building envelope feature (i.e. better wall or roof insulation)

HVAC retrofits involving complete replacement of existing systems andsignificant upgrades to building automation controls).

level ii analysis energy survey and analysis details43

LEVEL II ANALYSIS – ENERGY SURVEY AND ANALYSIS -DETAILS

Provide a list of capital intensive improvement that require further data and analysis (cont.)

Lighting retrofit requiring significant investment such as LED light sources for high bay and light poles.

Alternative energy generation systems like geothermal, solar PV, solar hot water, and wind energy.

level ii analysis energy survey and analysis report

LEVEL II ANALYSIS – ENERGY SURVEY AND ANALYSIS - REPORT

Provide summary of energy use and cost associated with each major component. Specify Computer software analysis utilized. Compare actual total utility usage and calculated energy estimates.

Provide description of building including floor plans, and inventories of major equipment (place details in Appendices)

level ii analysis energy survey and analysis report49

LEVEL II ANALYSIS – ENERGY SURVEY AND ANALYSIS - REPORT

List measure that are impractical or not applicable for the facility

Provide discussion of recommended energy conservation measures

Existing situation now wasting energy

Measures impact on health, safety and comfort

Required repairs of existing equipment

Impact on occupants, O&M procedures and staff

Useful life of equipment

level ii analysis energy survey and analysis report50

LEVEL II ANALYSIS – ENERGY SURVEY AND ANALYSIS - REPORT

Provide Summary Table with name of energy conservation measure, estimated annual energy savings, estimated installation cost, and simple payback period. Provide project summary for implementation of all recommendations measures.

Recommend Measurement and Verification methods to validate performance of projects.

Discuss potential capital intensive measures requiring a Level III analysis.

level iii detailed analysis of capital intensive modifications details

LEVEL III – DETAILED ANALYSIS OF CAPITAL-INTENSIVE MODIFICATIONS-DETAILS

Complete steps of a Level II – Energy Survey and Analysis services

Potential Owner Interface and Information

Executive Management - Owner provided detail financial criteria for life cycle cost analysis and third party financing as applicable

Facility Managers - Discuss potential construction contractor and maintenance contractors that can assist with cost estimated for detailed analysis,

level iii detailed analysis of capital intensive modifications details52

LEVEL III – DETAILED ANALYSIS OF CAPITAL-INTENSIVE MODIFICATIONS-DETAILS

Existing Building On-Site Survey Information, validate drawings and other documentation

Envelope components (Wall Roof, Floor, Windows, Doors, Skylights, etc.)

HVAC Systems components and control strategies

Lighting fixture types and controls

Equipment schedules , space and occupancy information

level iii detailed analysis of capital intensive modifications details53

LEVEL III – DETAILED ANALYSIS OF CAPITAL-INTENSIVE MODIFICATIONS-DETAILS

Conduct more rigorous energy analysis

Conduct energy simulation analysis with 8760 hour simulation software (i.e Trane Tracer or Carrier HAP-Detail level).

Requires well defined building envelope information

Detail HVAC Systems components and control strategies

Accurate lighting and other electrical equipment levels and schedules

level iii detailed analysis of capital intensive modifications details54

LEVEL III – DETAILED ANALYSIS OF CAPITAL-INTENSIVE MODIFICATIONS-DETAILS

Detail construction costs estimates or contractor price quotes are obtained.

Equipment O&M and replacements costs are determined from service contractors.

Complete life cycle cost analysis of alternatives are conducted

Life Cycle Costing Manual - Federal EnergyManagement Program

Conclusions are presented based on LCC evaluation of all alternatives.

Conduct energy simulation analysis with 8760 hour simulation software (i.e Trane Tracer or Carrier HAP-Detail level).

Requires well defined building envelope information

Detail HVAC Systems components and control strategies

Accurate lighting and other electrical equipment levels and schedules

life cycle costing manual federal energy management program

LIFE CYCLE COSTING MANUALFEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

http://www.bfrl.nist.gov/oae/publications/handbooks/135.html

user friendly life cycle cost analysis

USER-FRIENDLY LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS

http://www.doe2.com/download/lcc/LCC-Summary-Rev2004.pdf

life cycle cost analysis hvac equipment useful life

LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS HVAC EQUIPMENT USEFUL LIFE

Reference ASHRAE 2007 HVAC Application Handbook, Chapter 36

level iii detailed analysis of capital intensive modifications report

LEVEL III – DETAILED ANALYSIS OF CAPITAL-INTENSIVE MODIFICATIONS-REPORT

Include text, schematics and equipment lists necessary to completely describe the measure. Preliminary engineering information and detailed estimates or firm price quotes should support cost estimates.

Prepare a financial evaluation of the estimated capital improvement projected energy savings.

Use the owner’s chosen techniques and criteria as requested in final presentation.