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Population Interactions Ch. 51. Ecological Community . Interactions between all living things in an area Coevolution  changes encourages by interactions between two or more species Predator vs. Prey Herbivore vs. Plant Food Availability creates complex interactions:

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ecological community
Ecological Community
  • Interactions between all living things in an area
  • Coevolution changes encourages by interactions between two or more species
    • Predator vs. Prey
    • Herbivore vs. Plant
  • Food Availability creates complex interactions:
    • Optimal Foraging Theory animal must balance the energy spent to get food with the energy they get from eating it; determines diet
    • Specialist eat one or few types
    • Generalist eat almost anything
arms race
Arms Race
  • Prey must adapt methods to protect themselves if they are to survive
    • Hiding places; physical defenses; poisons
    • Aposematic coloration bright, contrasting color patterns that act as a warning of poison
  • Predators must learn to over come these methods too
    • Recognize poisonous prey; hunting skills; immunity to poisons
  • Cryptic coloration camouflage to help hide predators and prey
copy cat
Copy Cat
  • Mimicry resembling the appearance of a another species to gain an advantage
  • Batesian harmless species mimics a dangerous species
    • Mimic gains protection but does not commit energy like the model does
  • Mullerian dangerous species have similarities; predators learn of danger much faster
fight for the right to survive
Fight for the Right to Survive
  • Interspecific competition competing between different species
    • IntRAspecific competition inside a population of one species
  • Interference species directly limit access to resources
    • Lions chase away hyenas
  • Exploitative species lower amount of resources so they are harder to find
    • Birds eat seeds so it is harder for squirrels to find them
  • Competitive Exclusion Principle if two population require the same limited resources in the same way, one will destroy the other
you need a niche
You Need a Niche
  • Niche specific way a species interacts with its environment
    • All successful businesses need a market in order to survive
  • Ecological niche the food type, amount, and space required for a species to survive
    • Fundamental all possible resources that CAN be used
    • Realized all possible resources ACTUALLY used
  • Competition can occur when fundamental niches overlap
cant we all just get along
Cant We All Just Get Along
  • Not all overlapping parts of niches lead to competition
    • All animals breath air but rarely have to compete for it
  • Resource partitioning different species can use the same resources but can get them or use them in different ways
    • Birds species can feed on the same insects but get them different parts of the tree
  • Character Displacement
    • Sympatric species living in the same area are more morphologically different
      • Darwin’s Finches
    • Allopatric species living in different areas are less morphologically different
symbiotic interactions
Symbiotic Interactions
  • Symbiosis physical ecological interactions
  • Commensalism one species benefits and one species is not affected
    • Grass eaters stir up insects that birds will eat
  • Mutualism both species benefit
    • E. coli in your intestine gets nutrients from us and gives us vitamins
  • Parasitism one species benefits (parasite) and one species is negatively affected (host)
    • Tapeworm takes nutrition from our intestine and decreases our health
  • Endoparasites live inside the body
  • Ectoparasites live outside the body
defining a community
Defining A Community
  • Some see communities as “super-organisms”; species in the community are so well connected they require each other to exist and to exist in certain amounts
    • Species composition could reach equilibrium and shifts with major changes
  • Others think communities constantly change and have no strict boundaries or composition
  • Some biomes do have clear boundaries though; Water vs. Land, Aerobic vs. Anaerobic
  • Ecotones edges where communities meet; full of biodiversity
  • ESSAY!!!
  • Explain which of these ideas you most agree with; support with reference material