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Chapter 9: Marine Reptiles, Birds, and Mammals. Vertebrates 350 m.y.a. vertebrates invaded land Decendents of bony fish Land vertebrates had to adapt to harsher conditions on shore Tetrapods had to develop lungs that allowed for absorption of oxygen directly from air.

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Chapter 9: Marine Reptiles, Birds, and Mammals


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    1. Chapter 9: Marine Reptiles, Birds, and Mammals

    2. Vertebrates 350 m.y.a. vertebrates invaded land Decendents of bony fish Land vertebrates had to adapt to harsher conditions on shore Tetrapods had to develop lungs that allowed for absorption of oxygen directly from air. Tetrapods had to evolve in ways to keep from drying out.

    3. Amphibians, early tetrapods, have eggs that are vulnerable. They need to stay moist and lay them in water. Reptiles on the other hand solved the problem of waterloss, resulting in the evolution of birds and mammals. One they were equipped with adaptations for land they reentered the ocean.

    4. Classification • Marine Reptiles • 7000 species • Dry skin with scales • Eggs leathery shell • Poilkilotherms (body temp varies w/environment) and ectotherms (lose metabolic heat to environment)

    5. Sea Turtles • Shell, carapace, is fused with their backbone. • Cannot retract their heads into the shell • Legs are modified into flippers for swimming • Warmer waters

    6. Feed on seagrass, seaweed, sponges, sea squirts, barnacles, jellyfish Must return to land to reproduce Migrate to original beach, possible use of magnetic fields Return every 2-4 years, copulate offshore, females come on shore at night, dig a hole lay between 100 – 160 eggs, hatch approx. 60 days

    7. 7 (8) species of Sea Turtles (all classified as threatened); Green (Chelonia mydas) Hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) Leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) D.o.d,largest turtle Kemp’s Ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) Loggerhead (Caretta caretta) Flatback (Natator depressa) Black (Chelonia agassizii) Olive Ridley (Lepidochetys olivacea)

    8. Green Sea Turtle Hawksbill Sea Turtle Flatback Sea Turtle Black Sea Turtle

    9. Kemps Sea Turtle Leatherback Sea Turtle Loggerhead Sea Turtle Olive Ridley

    10. Sea Snakes Approx. 55 species found in tropical waters Laterally flattened and tail paddle-shaped for swimming, 3-4ft long Mate in the ocean, ovoviviparous Closely related to cobras, rarely aggressive

    11. Marine Iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) Galapagos Islands Eats seaweed and can dive 33ft to graze Saltwater Crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) Mangroove swamps and estuaries 20-33ft long, very aggressive

    12. Seabirds Endothermic Waterproof feathers Hollow bones Hard-shelled egg Spend significant amount of time in marine environment and eat marine organisms

    13. Penguins Flightless, wings modified into stubby flippers Bones are denser to reduce buoyancy Layer of fat and dense waterproof feathers Feed on fish, squid, and krill Lay eggs during cold times of year to ensure food availability when egg hatches Emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) mate for life

    14. Tubernoses Large group with distinctive tube-like nostrils and heavy beaks usually curved at tip Spend months and sometimes years at sea Salt glands are used to get rid of excess salt Albatrosses (Diomedea) glides almost never flap, wing span 11ft Shearwaters (Puffinus) and Petrels (Pterodroma)

    15. Skillful, catch fish at sea Faithful mates, elaborate mating rituals Nest in remote islands and cliffs Incubation and care for single chicks can take up to 8 months

    16. Fig. 9.7

    17. Pelicans and Related Birds Webbing between all four toes Large fish eaters, widely distributed Pelicans (Pelecanus) unique pouch below their beaks, plunge into water to catch fish in its pouch Cormorants (Phalacrocorax) black long-necked, dive to pursue their prey, float low in water with only neck seen

    18. Fig. 9.8

    19. Frigate Bird Narrow wings, long forked talk Pirates, very seldom enter water feathers are not very waterproof Nest in large colonies called rookeries, creating large deposits of guano (fertilizers)

    20. Gulls and Related Birds Gulls (Larus) the largest variety of seabirds, common and widespread Predator and scavengers Terns (Sterna) graceful flyers, hover over their prey, slender beaks Puffins, Razorbill, Great Auk cold water species

    21. Shorebirds Wading, do not have webbed feet Live inland as well as sea Plovers, sandpipers, rails, coots, herons, egrets, and even ducks

    22. Marine Mammals • 200 m.y.a • Class Mammalia evolved from extinct reptiles • 4600 species of mammals • Endotherms and homeotherms • Hair, mostly viviparous (embryo receives nutrients and oxygen through the placenta, mammary gland • Larger brain, live anywhere air to breathe and food to eat

    23. Pinnipeds – Order Pinnipedia • Paddle-shaped flippers for swimming • Predators, fish and squid • Streamlined bodies • Coldwater, thick layer of fat (blubber) • Breed on land

    24. Seals • Largest group, rear flippers that cannot be moved forward • They move on land with front flippers • Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) • Elephant Seals (Mirounga)

    25. Sea Lions and Fur Seals • Eared seals • Move their rear flippers forward • Use all fair limbs to walk/run on land • Graceful swimmers • Males much larger than females, massive head and hairy mane • California sea lion (Zalophus californianus)

    26. Odobenus rosmarus Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) • Tusks are used for defense • Feeds on invertebrates that it sucks up from the sea bottom • Dependent on sea ice

    27. Sea Otter and Polar Bear • Order Carnivora • Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris) • Smallest marine mammal averages between 60 – 80 pounds • Lacks layer of blubber instead uses air trapped in its dense fur • Breed and give birth in water, eats up to 30% of its body weight/day (invertebrates and fish) • Lives in kelp beds

    28. Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) • Semi aquatic animals that live in the Arctic and feeds primarily on seals • Depends on sea ice for survival

    29. Manatees and Dugong (sea cows) • Order Sirenia, relatives of elephants • Pair of front flippers, no rear limbs • Paddle – shaped horizontal tail • Blubber, live in shallow coastal waters • Strict vegetarians, large in size Dugongs (10ft) and Manatees (15ft) • Manatee (Trichechus)

    30. Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises • Order Cetacea, largest group • Many legends, art, and literature come from these animals • Bodies are streamlined, breath air, warm-blooded, have hair, and produce milk for their young • Front flippers, no rear limbs (present in embryonic stage only) • Many have dorsal fin, muscular tail fin-like (fluke) • Blubber, provides insulation and buoyancy • Single or double opening on the top of their head – blowhole • 90 species, all marine except 5 freshwater dolphin species • Divided into two groups; toothless and toothed

    31. Fig. 9.15

    32. Baleen (toothless) whales, Mysticeti • Rows of flexible, fibrous plates (baleen) hang from upper jaws made up of keratin and bristles overlap • Largest whales, 13 species • Blowhole has two openings • Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) • Largest, males up to 80ft and females up to 110ft • Weigh up to 90 – 140 tons • Feed by gulping up schools of fish and swarms of krill, Grey Whales are bottom feeders

    33. Toothed Whales, Odonticeti • 80 species, teeth are adapted for diet of fish, squid, and other prey that they can catch and hold • Food is swallowed whole not chewed • Blowhole has one opening • Largest toothed whale is the sperm whale (Physeter catadon) at 42 tons • Killer Whale (Orcinus orca)

    34. Fig. 9.18(Contd.)

    35. Small toothed whales are called dolphins or porpoises. Dolphins tend to be classified by their distinctive beaks and porpoises have more blunt shorter “noses”. They are very social and move in pods. • Bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus)

    36. Whaling Early as 6000 B.C. Blubber used to make soap and lamp oil Baleen used for corsets Meat

    37. 1800s harpoons and steamships made whaling easier • The problem with whaling was that whales are long-lived mammals, had low reproductive rate, and were slow swimmers • Factory ships made whaling more efficient • Whaling reached it peak in 1930s

    38. Right Whales were named so because they would float after being harpooned • 1946, from the decline in whale populations, 20 whaling nations established International Whaling Commission (IWC) in attempt to regulate whale hunting • IWC collected data and set annual quotas • Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, US Congress banned the hunting of all marine mammals in the US waters and importation of marine mammal products (except in traditional fisheries of AK natives)

    39. Pacific white-sided dolphin drowned after getting caught in a drift net in the North Pacific, today MMPA has enforced the use of dolphin – safe methods

    40. Tab. 9.2