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GOB. Topic Review. Carbon: why is it so special? Alkanes: formula, naming, properties Variations: cycloalkanes, halogenation Isomers: Constitutional & Geometric Alkenes & Alkynes: naming, properties, addition across double bonds Polymerization and common polymers

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

GOB

Topic Review

slide2

Carbon: why is it so special?

  • Alkanes: formula, naming, properties
  • Variations: cycloalkanes, halogenation
  • Isomers: Constitutional & Geometric
  • Alkenes & Alkynes: naming, properties, addition across double bonds
  • Polymerization and common polymers
  • Aromatics: resonance, naming, reactions, role in biology
slide3

Alcohols, Ethers, and Thiols: naming, properties, polarity!

  • Common reactions: hydration, dehydration, dehydrogenation, thiol oxidation
  • Aldehydes and Ketones: naming, properties, polarity!, oxidation and reduction, nucleophilic attack,
  • Sugars and hemiacetals / cyclization
  • Keto-enol tautomerization
  • Carboxylic Acids: naming, properties, acidity
slide4

Fatty acids: structure and properties, soaps

  • Decarboxylation
  • Carboxyl derivatives: Esters, anhydrides, and amides
  • Fisher esterification
  • Amides and peptide bonds
  • Polymers: polyamides, polyesters, polycarbonates
slide5

Amines: naming, properties, basicity, heterocyclic amines in biology

  • Enantiomers: identification, properties, optical activity, multiple chiral centers
  • Chiral reactions and biochemical chirality
  • Carbohydrates: formula, naming, Fisher projections, pyranose vs furanose
  • Sugars to know: Glucose, Fructose, Glyceraldehyde, Dihydroxyacetone
  • Sugar cyclization
slide6

Glycosidic bonds and polysaccharides: starch, glycogen, cellulose

  • Blood groups
  • Lipids: Triacylglycerols, Waxes, Membrane Lipids, Cholesterol
  • Membrane formation and Saponification
  • Proteins: functions, structure, amino acid structure and chirality
  • Types of amino acids and amino acid ionization: gel mobility and pI
slide7

Peptide bond formation

  • Levels of structure in proteins: primary, secndary (alpha helices and beta sheets), tertiary, and quaternary
  • Protein mutation diseases: sickle-cell, alzheimer’s, prions
  • Protein folding and denaturation
  • Enzymes: lock and key vs induced fit, enzyme activity, apo-enzymes, enzyme kinetics
  • Inhibitors of enzymatic activity
  • Commercial use of enzymes
slide8

Nucleotides: structure and properties

  • DNA: structure and properties, discovery, compaction in the cell
  • Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
  • DNA Technologies
  • Catabolism: process of metabolism
  • Glycolysis: overview and products
  • Anaerobic and Aerobic (TCA cycle)
  • ATP Generation
  • Fatty Acid oxidation
  • Protein catabolism and Starvation