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Enzymes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Enzymes. Proteins that act as biological catalysts Substrates are molecules that an enzyme binds during a particular reaction Catalysts- molecules that increase the rate of a reaction without being used up in the reaction

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Presentation Transcript
enzymes
Enzymes
  • Proteins that act as biological catalysts
  • Substrates are molecules that an enzyme binds during a particular reaction
  • Catalysts- molecules that increase the rate of a reaction without being used up in the reaction
  • Enzymes are proteins so all the general properties of proteins apply to enzymes
enzymes cont d
Enzymes (cont’d)
  • Structure
    • Primary Structure- determined by amino acids
    • Secondary Structure- β-sheets and α-helices
    • Tertiary Structure- composed of elements of secondary structure
      • Hydrogen bonding, Hydrophobic interactions, Ionic bonding and Covalent bonding
    • Quaternary Structure- composed of multiple polypeptide chains
enzymes cont d1
Enzymes (cont’d)
  • Enzymes promote particular reactions
    • Determined by its three dimensional structure
    • Specific substrate binding
  • Enzyme binds to substrate via the active site
    • Active site has specific shape and chemical properties that allow it to promote a specific reaction
enzymes cont d2
Enzymes (cont’d)
  • Factors that effect enzymes
    • pH and temperature- variations can lead to altering of tertiary structure making it inactive; Most of the time is a permanent change
    • Organic Solvents- disrupt hydrophobic bonds (involved in tertiary and quaternary structure); Reversible
    • Inhibitors- Prevent enzyme from binding to substrate
    • Protease- breaks down enzyme
lab info
Lab Info
  • Work in groups of 4
  • Only 1 person in each group will handle the sodium azide
    • Wear goggles and gloves
  • Use the same hydrogen peroxide for every reaction EXCEPT after the sodium azide
    • Dispose of hydrogen peroxide in waste container
  • Only have to do the control once
    • But make sure to include it on every graph
  • Label tube that will go in the incubator clearly
lab info1
Lab Info
  • Handle filter paper discs with tweezers
    • Oil from your skin will alter reaction
  • Start timing as soon as the disk is in the hydrogen peroxide and stop timing as soon as it reaches the top
    • Measure time to nearest 0.1 second
  • If the disk does not rise after 3 minutes assume no reaction will occur
lab report
Lab Report
  • Must be TYPED
  • Should have 5 graphs (Bar Graphs)
    • Graph the reciprocal time 1/T (Rate of the reaction)
    • Graph the average of the runs of each experiment
    • Put error bars on the graphs
    • Graphs should contain a clear legend
      • States method of measurement and identifies points and error bars
        • Look in lab manual for an example
assignments
Assignments
  • All lab reports must be typed
  • Do the lab report as follows- differs from lab manual
    • Intro: Short background about the lab; include hypothesis
    • Materials and Methods: Summarize briefly; don’t need exacts
    • Results: tables/graphs of data and text to summarize what they show
    • Discussion: analysis of results; troubleshoot lab if it didn’t work
    • Conclusion: short summary of everything
  • All assignments are due at the beginning of the next lab.
order of experiment
Order of Experiment
  • Start Trypsin reaction
  • Run Control disc
  • Effect of concentration
    • Run [100%], [50%], [25%] 3 times each
  • Effect of temperature
    • Run boiled, room temperature, and iced samples 3 times each
  • Effect of pH
    • Run pH 3, 5, 7, 9 three times each
  • Effect of Proteases
    • Run Trypsin sample 3 times each (must incubate ~1 hour)
  • Effect of Inhibitor
    • Run Sodium Azide sample 3 times each.
    • Dispose of h202 in waste container.