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Earth Sciences Sector. EALCO - a model for climate impact analysis of ecosystems. Reducing Canada's vulnerability to climate change. Shusen Wang Canada Centre for Remote Sensing Natural Resources Canada Yinsuo Zhang Vladimir Korolevich Richard Fernandes Josef Cihlar. Outline.

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ealco a model for climate impact analysis of ecosystems

Earth Sciences Sector

EALCO - a model for climate impact analysis of ecosystems

Reducing Canada's vulnerability to climate change

Shusen Wang

Canada Centre for Remote Sensing

Natural Resources Canada

Yinsuo Zhang

Vladimir Korolevich

Richard Fernandes

Josef Cihlar

slide2

Outline

  • Introduction
  • Model Structure
  • Sample Results
slide3

National

Regional

Municipality

Geo. & bio. C

Paleo Climate

Social eco. cost

Glacial

Coastal

Permafrost

Ecosystems

Water resources

EO & atm. radiation

CCP

slide4

Ecosystem

Energy

Cycle

Water

Cycle

Carbon

Cycle

Nitrogen

Cycle

Climate

  • Climate Change
  • Climate Variability
  • Extreme Event
  • Local vs. Regional
  • Short term vs. Long term
  • etc.

Climate drives ecosystem.

Ecosystem feedbacks on climate.

Ecosystem and Climate

Ecosystem consists of fundamental physical, physiological, biogeochemical processes.

Ecosystem processes are intrinsically dynamic and highly coupled with each other.

climate impact assessment

Energy

Cycle

Water

Cycle

EALCO

Carbon

Cycle

Nitrogen

Cycle

Climate Impact Assessment

EALCO - Ecological Assimilationof Landand Climate Observations

Inputs

Outputs

Water Balance

Carbon Budget

Radiation and

Energy Budget

Nitrogen dynamics

Satellite EO

Surface & Subsurface

Observations

Climate Model

Outputs/Reanalysis

GIS Database

  • Impact
  • Response
  • Sensitivity
  • Vulnerability
  • Feedback
  • Adaptation

Outcomes

Assessment

the radiation module
The Radiation module

EALCO

  • Gap probability based ray tracing approach.
  • Multi-canopy layers and multi-wavelength for solar radiation.
  • Separation of direct vs. diffuse components.
  • Long wave radiation calculated from canopy and ground surface temperatures obtained through their energy balance solutions.

Wang, S., et al., 2002, Eco. Mod., 155: 191-204.

Wang, S. et al., 2004, Eco. Mod. (in review).

Wang, S. et al., 2003, IGARSS

the energy balance module
The Energy Balance module

EALCO

  • Energy balance solution for canopy, soil, and snow, using surface temperatures as prognostic variables.
  • Canopy energy balance coupled with plant water balance and canopy C dynamics.
  • Multi-soil and snow layer identification for heat transfer and water/ice/snow phase change.

Wang, S., 2002, International J. Climatology 22: 1249-1265.

the water balance module
The Water Balance module

EALCO

  • Dynamic canopy water balance solution using leaf water potential as the prognostic variable.
  • Climate and physiological control on evapotranspiration through nested iteration for energy balance and intercellular CO2 balance.
  • Multi-layer hydraulic conductance for soil and root (radial and axial).
  • Richardson equation for soil water simulation.
  •  method for ground surface evaporation.

Wang, S., et al., 2002, International J. Climatology 22: 1249-1265.

Zhang, Y. and Wang, S., 2004, AGU 2004 Joint Assembly, Montreal, Canada.

slide9

The Carbon Balance module

EALCO

  • Farquhar model based C fixation.
  • Identification of sunlit and shaded leaves.
  • Identification of different plant compartments for organ growth, respiration, and litter production.
  • Identification of three C pools for litterfall and three C pools for soil organic matter.
  • Multi-soil layer heterotrophic respiration.

Wang, S., et al., 2002, Climatic Change 55: 451-477.

Wang, S., et al., 2001, Eco. Mod., 142: 135-154.

the nitrogen balance module
The Nitrogen Balance module

EALCO

  • Nitrogen balance among atmospheric deposition, fertilizer, and ecosystem leaching.
  • Plant and soil N content balanced by root N uptake and litterfall.
  • Dynamic root N uptake algorithms including both active and passive N transfers.
  • Corresponding plant and soil N pools to carbon pools.

Wang, S., et al., 2002, Climatic Change 55: 451-477.

Wang, S., et al., 2001, Eco. Mod., 142: 135-154.

the water transfer scheme

leaf

qa

Atmosphere

rc,sunlit

ra

rc,shaded

qsat(Tc)

Canopy

c

rx,1

root

soil

Soil layer 1

rx,2

Cw

rx,3

rr,1

r,1

rs,1

s,1

Soil layer 2

rr,2

r,2

rs,2

s,2

Soil layer 3

rr,3

r,3

rs,3

s,3

The Water Transfer scheme

EALCO

the plant c and n scheme

Foliage

Stem

Fine Root

CO2

Photosynthesis

Substrate C

Substrate C

Substrate C

Substrate N

Substrate N

Substrate N

Resistance

Resistance

Structural

C N

Structural

C N

Structural

C N

Exudation

Heartwood

N uptake

Litter fall

The Plant C and N scheme

EALCO

the soil c and n scheme

litterfall

Leaf, Stem

Cellulose

Extract.

Lignin

Surface litter

CO2

N deposition

Min. N

Microbial

PLANTC

Active

Slow

Humus

Soil layer 1

CO2

Root

N uptake

Microbial

Min. N

CO2

C

Extract.

Lignin

Cellulose

litterfall

N

Soil layer 2

N Leaching

The soil C and N scheme

EALCO

Fertilizer

the soil and snow thermal water scheme
The Soil and SnowThermal & Water scheme

EALCO

LE

H

Rsdn

Rldn

Rlup

G

Runoff

Snow layers

LE

H

Rsdn

Rldn

Rlup

Puddles

G

Wflow

G

Root uptake

Soil layers

Drainage or capillary rise

Water table

energy water and co 2 processes around a leaf

CO2

Sensible heat

Ta

ca

Boundary layer

ra

ra

Tc

rl

Stomate

ci

Leaf Interior

Energy, Water, and CO2 processes around a leaf

EALCO

RN

H2O

ea

ra

rl

es(Tc)

CO2

ATP, NADPH

Dark reactions

Light reactions

H2O

O2

C

the coupling scheme of energy water and co 2
The coupling scheme of Energy, Water, and CO2

EALCO

Iteration for c

Iteration for Tc

Iteration for Ci

CANOPY

CO2 balance

Energy balance

Water balance

Control Equations:

Canopy water balance

Canopy energy balance

Canopy CO2 balance

slide19

Site Application

- Energy, water and CO2 fluxes

slide22

Site Application

- Annual C and H2O budgets for the boreal old aspen ecosystem

ET – Evapotranspiration; GPP – Gross Primary Production; NPP – Net Primary Production;

NEP – Net Ecosystem Productivity; Meas. NEP – Measured NEP.

slide23

Regional Application

- ET validation using water balance measurements

Churchill-falls sub-basin average ET observed:

260mm/year

(Courtesy of OURANOS Consortium)

slide24

National Application

- Annual ET (1961-1990) at CWEEDS* stations

*CWEEDS - Canadian Weather Energy and Engineering Data Sets

slide25

National Application

- Sample inputs

slide26

National Application

- Sample outputs

THANK YOU!