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  1. Notes 14-1 Observing the solar system

  2. Chapter Preview Questions • 1. What is the sun and where is it within the solar system? • a. a planet; at the center of the system • b. a planet; at the outer edge of the system • c. a star; at the center of the system • d. a star; at the outer edge of the system

  3. Chapter Preview Questions • 1. What is the sun and where is it within the solar system? • a. a planet; at the center of the system • b. a planet; at the outer edge of the system • c. a star; at the center of the system • d. a star; at the outer edge of the system

  4. Chapter Preview Questions • 2. Which four planets are closest to the sun? • a. Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars • b. Mercury, Earth, Pluto, Neptune • c. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune • d. Mercury, Earth, Mars, Jupiter

  5. Chapter Preview Questions • 2. Which four planets are closest to the sun? • a. Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars • b. Mercury, Earth, Pluto, Neptune • c. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune • d. Mercury, Earth, Mars, Jupiter

  6. Chapter Preview Questions • What are some general characteristics of Jupiter • and Saturn? • a. small, rocky, many moons • b. large, ringed, many moons • c. large, rocky, no atmospheres • d. small, thick atmospheres

  7. Chapter Preview Questions • What are some general characteristics of Jupiter • and Saturn? • a. small, rocky, many moons • b. large, ringed, many moons • c. large, rocky, no atmospheres • d. small, thick atmospheres

  8. Chapter Preview Questions • 4. What makes life as we know it possible on Earth? • a. rocky surface, one moon, water vapor • b. ice, suitable temperatures, thick air • c. rocky surface, water in three states, thin air • d. liquid water, suitable temperatures • and atmosphere

  9. Chapter Preview Questions • 4. What makes life as we know it possible on Earth? • a. rocky surface, one moon, water vapor • b. ice, suitable temperatures, thick air • c. rocky surface, water in three states, thin air • d. liquid water, suitable temperatures • and atmosphere

  10. Geocentric System • In a geocentric system, Earth is at the center of the revolving planets and stars.

  11. Ptolemy’s Model • 140 AD • Geocentric model • Thought plants moved on small circles that move on bigger circles

  12. Heliocentric System • In a heliocentric system, Earth and the other planets revolve around the sun.

  13. Copernicus • 1542 • Worked out the arrangement of the known planets and how they move around the sun

  14. Galileo • 1600s • Used a newly invented telescope to make discoveries that support the heliocentric model.

  15. Tycho Brahe • Late 1500’s • Made observations about the positions of the planets without using a telescope

  16. Kepler • Used Tycho Brahe’s data to develop 3 laws that describe the motions of the planets • 1) The orbit of each planet is an ellipse (elongated circle) • 2) Planets move faster when close to sun, and slower when further from sun • 3) Planets that are closer to the sun orbit the sun faster

  17. Elliptical Orbit

  18. The solar system • In Galileo’s time, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn were discovered • Since then, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, moons, etc. have been discovered • Today, we know that the solar system consists of the sun, the planets, their moons, and other small objects that orbit the sun

  19. Measuring Distances in Solar System • Unit = Astronomical Unit (AU) • 1 AU = ~150 million km (distance = Earth’s average distance from sun)

  20. The Sun and Planets • Shown below are the average distances of each planet from the sun.

  21. Exploring solar system • Telescopes on Earth and in space • Astronauts to moon/ space • Moons and planets do not produce their own light, but rather they reflect the sun’s light

  22. Planet Speed Versus Distance • Johannes Kepler discovered a relationship between the speed of a planet and its distance from the sun. Use the graph to discover what Kepler learned.

  23. About 30 km/s Reading Graphs: According to the graph, what is Earth’s average speed? Planet Speed Versus Distance

  24. Mercury; Mercury Interpreting Data: Which is closer to the sun, Mercury or Mars? Which moves faster? Planet Speed Versus Distance

  25. Planets that are closer to the sun move faster. Drawing Conclusions: What is the general relationship between a planet’s speed and its average distance from the sun? Planet Speed Versus Distance

  26. Uranus’s speed is less than that of Jupiter because Uranus is farther from the sun than Jupiter. Predicting: The planet Uranus is about 2,900 million km from the sun. Predict whether its speed is greater or less than Jupiter's speed. Explain your answer. Planet Speed Versus Distance