Chapter 5 - Recap • Which is usually more believable? Verbal or nonverbal • What is interaction adaption theory? What does it mean? • Kinesics refers to the study of ___________? • Example? • Haptics refers to the study of ____________? • Example? • Chronemics refers to the study of _________? • Example? • Proxemics refers to the study of __________? • Example? • Paralanguage is the study of _____________? • Example?
Reminders: • Film analysis next week • Following week -- Midterm
Verbal, nonverbal, and listening Tying it all together
Reflection • How do you have to use verbal communication, nonverbal communication, and listening (together) in during a conversation?
Verbal + Nonverbal • Charades vs. Taboo • Which was more difficult? Communicating without verbal or without nonverbal? Explain. • Easier or Harder? • Taboo with nonverbal movements? • Charades with verbal (descriptions)? • What did the two activities teach you about the importance of both nonverbal and verbal communication? • How did listening play a role? • Nonverbal communication at your desk • What do you feel you are communicating in class today? Was this intentional? • What are you communicating today with your attire? Was this intentional? • What do you think you are communicating verbally and nonverbally about your listening habits? (e.g. raising hand, being attentive, nodding, falling asleep)
Chapter 6 Lecture/Recap Effective Listening + Interpersonal Communication
Hearing vs. Listening • Difference? • More of an active process? • Riding to the mall with my friend, Shannon. We decide to play the Elle Varner cd while we are on the road. Then, Shannon and I start to talk about her baby shower and how much fun we had with all of our friends. • Are we hearing or listening to each other? Are we hearing or listening to the music? • Working memory theory • e.g. processing and storage while hearing • Is listening impacted by culture? Gender?
The Four Rs of Listening • Receiving • Responding • Recalling • Rating
Receiving • “hear and attend” • Acknowledging the message (verbally and nonverbally) • Selective reception • Mindful vs. Mindless • Ways to improve • Eliminate noise and physical barriers • Do not interrupt reception
Responding • Giving feedback • Verbal? Nonverbal? Or both? • Ways to improve • Adopt other’s point of view • Take ownership of words/thoughts/ideas • Remember, your thoughts aren’t universal
Recalling • Understanding, storing, and remembering • Word-for-word? • Could this be difficult and possibly hurt effective listening? • Example • What is the moral of the story? • What year did the story take place? • Was the mother helping her son or daughter? • Who did the mother go to for advice? • How many weeks did she wait before she returned? • How many times did I say “and”? • Ways to improve • Repeating the information • Mnemonic devices (e.g. acronyms) • Chunking information
Rating • Evaluation and Assessment • Do you agree? What is the context? Does the message have value? • Facts vs. inferences vs. opinions • How to improve • Detect speaker bias • Be open to change
Reasons We Listen • For information (examples?) • For enjoyment (examples?) • For cultural understanding (examples?) • For advice (examples?) • To help others (examples?)
Importance of Listening in Interpersonal Communication • Personal relationships (examples?) • Educational context (examples?) • Occupations (examples?)
Styles of Listening (PACT) • People-centered listening style • Action-centered listening style • Content-centered listening style • Time-centered listening style
Barriers to Listening • Noise (physical, semantic, and psychological) • Message overload • Message complexity • Lack of training • Preoccupation • Listening gap
Poor Listening Habits • Selective listening • Talkaholics • Pseudolistening • Gap filling • Defensive listening • Ambushing
Examples of poor listening • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bO-a-Yz4xA8 • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7AzNPWnzgC4 • Video Clip – My Wife and Kids (beginning, approx 7:30, 14:00, 18:10)
Tips for Effective Listening • Evaluate your skills • What type of listener are you…..(and why) • ….when conversing with a friend about your weekend? • ….when listening to a lecture? • ….when watching your favorite television show? • ….when watching a news broadcast?
Application Exercise #5 • Before we evaluate your listening within interpersonal communication, let’s continue to evaluate your individual listening skills • Practice your listening within two different scenarios; one from category A and one from category B • Category A: favorite television show, new/unfamiliar song by favorite artist, favorite talk show, funny/interesting clip on YouTube • Category B: news broadcast, political speech, class lecture (other than our class) • Compare your listening for each: • What were the similarities and/or differences? • Were there any barriers involved? (noise, message overload, message complexity, etc.) • Were you an effective listener? Why or why not? (use textbook terminology in your explanation) • Now, wait until the next day (or at least a few hours); how much of each situation do you still remember? What helped you remember? • Format: 2 paragraphs (must use textbook terminology and address all questions)
Tips for Effective Listening • Prepare yourself to listen (physically and mentally) • Examples? • Provide empathetic responses and/or nonjudgmental feedback • Practice your active listening • Paraphrase • Dialogue enhancers • Ask questions • Use silence to help with your listening
What is Active Listening? • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aP55nA8fQ9I&feature=relmfu • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W8a3w2aTEyo&feature=related
Listening activity – Application Exercise (10 pts) • Bring in a picture or an object that is important to you • We will work on improving listening skills for interpersonal communication • Sheet of paper, three sections • Before… • During…. (notes) • After…reflection
Before we begin… • Take a few minutes to respond to the following questions/statements: • Any listening prep? • What is your strategy for being an effective listener? What will you do as a speaker to help aid your listener in understanding (and remembering)? • Do you think there will be any barriers? For example, do you think noise will be an issue?
Being an effective listener… • Pick a partner. • Tell them a story about the picture/object you brought in • Switch. Repeat. • Afterwards, ask each other some questions about your story. Did your listener retain the information? Why do you think that was the case? • Reflect and share with your partner (take notes): • Do you think you were an effective listener? Does your partner agree? Why or why not? • What feedback did you give as a listener? • For example: Did you acknowledge the message? Did your provide feedback? Did you use active listening? • How did you retain the information? • Did relational history play a role? Interest in the story? The speaker’s actions? • What barriers existed? • Pick another partner and repeat the process. (and another…)
Reflection… • How did you do as an effective listener? • Do you still remember the information? • Based on the feedback from your partner, what did you do well as an effective listener? What do you need to work on?
Food for Thought • As a speaker, do you have to consider the listening skills of the person you are conversing with when involved in interpersonal communication? • Why or why not? • What strategic choices do you make in terms of your verbal communication? Nonverbal communication? • Think about what is most effective when you are listening to someone. What helps you pay attention? Retain the information?