Glorious Revolution Navigation Acts Treaty of Tordesillas Religious Clashes Paleo-Indians Salutary Neglect Spanish Armada Defeated Re-anglicanization Barbados Ottoman Turks English Colonies Population Growth Cash Crops Age of Exploration Slavery Chesapeake, Middle, New England Nomadic-Agricultural Portuguese Mercantilism Rise of Nations The Great Awakening Christopher Columbus Triangular Trade Recap: Chapter 1-3 Word Splash
World War Zero: The French and Indian war, 1754-1763 The Duel for North America
CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION Key Concepts • Prior to 1763, the British subordinated American capital to British capital • The British success in the French and Indian War transformed the relationship between British and the American colonies • British policies after 1763 were designed to raise revenues to pay for the cost of the empire • The American colonists were divided over what course of action to take in response to the British policies • The Americans created a gov’t, the Continental Congress, to address the deteriorating relationship between Britain and the colonies
The French in the Americas • France: Britain’s greatest rival • Colonists naturally favored British • France in North America • Jacques Cartier: St. Lawrence River • Samuel De Champlain: Quebec • Cavelier and La Salle: Louisiana • Population difference: 70k vs. 1 million • Education: 25% literacy rate • Relations with Indians: friendlier
European Colonies in the New World • 1750 French and British imperialistic rivalry The World Wars in Europe in America 1688-1697 War of the League of Augsburg King Wm’s War 1689-1697 1701-1713 War of Sp. Succession Queen Anne’s War 1702-1713 1740 -1748 War of Austrian Succession King George’s War 1744-1748 1756-1763 Seven Years War Fr & Indian War 1754-1763 1778-1783 The American Revolution American Revolution 1775-1783 1793-1802 Wars of the French Revolution Undeclared Fr. War 1798-1800 1803-1815 Napoleonic Wars War of 1812 1812-1814 • -1918 World War I World War I 1917-1918 1939-1945 World War II World War II 1941-1945
1754 The First Clash The Ohio Valley Note these two forts! British French Fort Necessity Fort Duquesne* George Washington * Delaware & Shawnee Indians
FORT DUQUESNE • This compact Vauban style (the original death star!) fort was built partially of horizontal, squared, oak and chestnut timbers laid in criblocked walls with tamped earth and rock fill on the land side and upright stockade walls on the sides abutting the rivers.
Background • Born in Virginia, 1732 • Married to Martha Custis • Personality: Physically brace, personally proud, composed, stoic, obsession with self-control • No college education • Served as a lieutenant colonel in the French and Indian War
George Washington and War • In the French and Indian War • Involved in a massacre he oversaw • Another one he survived • An embarrassing defeat • And a hollow victory • In the American Revolution • Suffered horrible losses in Brandywine • Allowed Philadelphia to be captured • Played a minor role in the Victory in Saratoga
"Join or Die" Ben Franklin à representatives from New England, NY, MD, PA • This is Benjamin Franklin's 1754 cartoon emphasizing the need for the various colonies and regions to work together. While this became a potent message during the revolutionary period of the 1770s, the cartoon was actually intended to unite colonists against the Indian threat. Albany Congress failed Iroquois broke off relations with Britain & threatened to trade with the French.
The French & Indian War • 1755 British reaction - eliminate Fr. presence in N. America Gen. Edward Braddock evict the French from the OH Valley & Canada (Newfoundland & Nova Scotia) • Attacks OH Valley, Mohawk Valley, & Acadia. • Killed 10 mi. from Ft. Duquesne by 1500 French and Indian forces. • Fr and Indians rampage across frontier from Pa. to NC
1756 British-American Colonial Tensions Methods ofFighting: • Indian-style guerilla tactics. • March in formation or bayonet charge. MilitaryOrganization: • Col. militias served under own captains. • Br. officers wanted to take charge of colonials. MilitaryDiscipline: • No mil. deference or protocols observed. • Drills & tough discipline. Finances: • Resistance to rising taxes. • Colonists should pay for their own defense. Demeanor: • Casual, non-professionals. • Prima Donna Br. officers with servants & tea settings.
1757 William Pitt Becomes Foreign Minister • He understood colonial concerns. • He offered them a compromise: -col. loyalty & mil. cooperation-->Br. would reimburse col. assemblies for their costs. -Lord Loudoun would be removed. - appoints James Wolfe to command RESULTS?Colonial morale increased by 1758.
1758-1761 The Tide Turns for England *By 1761, Sp. has become an ally of Fr.
1763 Treaty of Paris France --> lost her Canadian possessions, most of her empire in India, and claims to lands east of the Mississippi River. Spain -->got all French lands west of the Mississippi River, New Orleans, but lost Florida to England. England -->got all French lands in Canada, exclusive rights to Caribbean slave trade, and commercial dominance in India.
Worksheet Fr. & Ind. War Transforms Colonial Relations in N. America The first four years saw nothing but severe reverses for the British regulars and American colonials, primarily because of superior French land forces in the New World. Lack of colonial assistance to the war effort compounded British problems. By the end of 1757, however, the course of the war began to be altered by three major influences. One was the dynamic leadership of the British prime minister, William Pitt the Elder, who saw that victory in North America was the supreme task in the worldwide struggle and who has been truly called the organizer of victory in the Great War for the Empire. The second was the increasing superiority of British financial and industrial resources, food supplies, and naval equipment, as opposed to growing national bankruptcy and economic paralysis faced by France. Finally, both the British and Americans were becoming seasoned wilderness fighters. English-French rivalry worldwide World War b/w two powerful empires English, w/ colonial help, fight Fr. And their Native American allies Fr. Finally lose war & are expelled from N. America Eng. Inherit vast new land holdings in N. America Jot this on the top of your page. Quickly list the 5 major causes that follow http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article-9035340/French-and-Indian-War
Effects of the War on Britain? It doubled the size of Britain’s North American territory and it must be governed 2. It greatly enlarged England’s debt. They will have to pay to maintain and control this vast empire. To make matters worse, citizens in Great Britain were already heavily taxed. Britain’s contempt for the colonials created bitter feelings. Intractable American colonists were not about to accept restrictions on their activities. Some colonists, in fact, were beginning to compete effectively with British capitalists and refused to subordinate their economic interests to those of British manufacturers. Hostile NA in the Appalachian region, who felt threatened by American westward expansion into the Ohio River Valley, needed to be controlled. - Pontiac’s Rebellion Therefore, England felt that a major reorganization of her American Empire was necessary!
Effects of the War on the American Colonials 1.It united them against a common enemy for the first time. 2. It created a socializing experience for all the colonials who participated. 3. It created bitter feelings towards the British that would only intensify.
The Road to Revolution • SUGAR ACT, 1764
Stamp Act Crisis Loyal Nine- 1765 Sons of Liberty– began in NYC:Samuel Adams Non-compliance No tax collectors Stamp Act Congress– 1765*Stamp Act Resolves Declaratory Act– 1766
Townshend Duties Crisis: 1767-1770 : William Pitt, P. M. Charles Townshend, Secretary of the Exchequer (Champagne Charlie). • Shift from paying taxes for Br. war debts & quartering of troops à paying col. govt. salaries. • Tax these imports paper, paint, lead, glass, tea.
Colonial Response to the Townshend Duties 1.John Dickinson 1768 * Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania. Like most Americans, no argument w/ Britain’s right to regulate colonial trade but he did argue with Britain’s right to tax colonists to raise revenue 2.1768 2nd non-importation movement: 3.Riots against customs agents:*John Hancock’s ship, the Liberty.* 4000 British troops sent to Boston.
The Boston Massacre • For enlisted men, serving in the British army was often an act of desperation; subsistence wages • They often took spare jobs - contributed to tensions • Crispus Attucks • Calm afterwards as Lord North - new prime minister - withdrew all of Townshend Acts except Tea Tax • Sam Adams kept everyone informed through committees of correspondence http://ns.netmcr.com/~ambro/bm2.jpg
Tea Tax • Deceptive period of calm 1770-1773 • Most Americans begun to buy tea again but British East India Tea Company facing bankruptcy • Monopoly • Lower price (indirect tax) • Boston Tea Party 1773 • What will the British response be?
Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts 1774) • What will the British response be? • Boston Port Bill • Quartering Act • Massachusetts Gov’t Act
First Continental Congress • Sept 1774 - delegates from colonies meet to discuss response to Intolerable Acts • an advisory board not legislative body • Radicals - Va’s Patrick Henry, Ma’s Sam & John Adams, Pa’s Charles Thomson - colonies relationship w/ Br. Has passed point of no return. • Moderates - Pa’s John Dickinson and Va’s George Washington - relationship b/w the colonies and Gr. Britain can be repaired • Conservatives - NY’s John Jay and Pa’s Joseph Galloway - mild rebuke of Britain is ok but nothing aggressive - quasi-Albany Plan would be best. http://www.ushistory.org/carpentershall/visit/images/congress.jpg
First Continental Congress The more radical delegates used Thomas Jefferson’s A Summary View of the Rights of British America to post the following ideas • Parliament possessed no inherent authority to tax colonists • The British Empire was a compact (or loose union) between the center (the mother country) and its colonies, not one unit dominated by Britain • Each colony possessed its own legislature independent of Britain’s legislative authority • Holding together this loose-knit union was a collective allegiance to the king • They took the following actions: • they declared the Intolerable Acts null & • void • They recommended colonists arm themselves • Militias should be formed (Mass. Minute • Men) • They recommended a boycott of British • goods - A TOTAL AND COMPLETE BOYCOTT • *note: not calling for independence yet http://www.ushistory.org/carpentershall/visit/images/congress.jpg
British Reactions • Parliament rejected the First Continental Congress’ petition • April 1775 Br. Commander in Boston sent detachment of troops to nearby Lexington and Concord • Shot heard around the world • British lost 1/3 of their army
For the first time, many colonists began calling people who joined the non-importation movement, "patriots!"