How does the color work? • Spectrum • Spectrum is a contiguous band of wavelengths, which is emitted, reflected or transmitted by different objects • Each color has a different wavelength, which determines its place in the spectral order. • Visible Light are composed of Violet, Indigo, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange, Red color. • Red has longest wavelength, violet the shortest. • Between each of the spectral hues there are infinite gradations. When these waves of light enter our eyes, they produce the sensation of illumination and color.
How does the color work? • The source of all color is light Light Source Absorb every color but red Red Reflected light is what occurs naturally in our daily world. Everything you view in the real world is a result of reflected light. Directed light is the man-made process used in computer monitors to create color.
How does the color work? Banana is yellow, sky is blue, and some flower is purple because when struck by light they each reflect a particular color and absorb all other color.
Color Models • There are 4 color models • RGB (Additive Model) • CMYK (Subtractive Model) • HSB or HSV • CIE L*a*b* • Web color model (Hexadecimal)
Additive Color System - RGB • Primary colors of additive color model are red green and blue, referred to as RGB. • The additive reproduction process usually uses red, green and blue light to produce the other colors. • Additive system begins with black and adds color • Red+Green+Blue=White • Computer monitors and televisions are the most common application of additive color
Subtractive Color System - CMYK • The primary colors of the subtractive system are cyan, magenta, and yellow. • Subtractive color explains the theory of mixing paints, dyes, inks, and natural colorants to create colors which absorb some wavelengths of light and reflect others. • The color that an object appears to have is based on what parts of the spectrum are reflected by it. Apple absorbs all and reflect RED
Subtractive Color System - CMYK • Subtractive system begins with white and subtracts color • CMYK is commonly used in printing as most print begins with a white page that reflects white light The combination of CMY colors should produce black, but the fourth color black in CMYK is needed to produce true black.
Secondary Colors & Primary Colors Additives Model Subtractive Model
HSB Model or HSV Model • Hue, Value, and Saturation (or Brightness) • Hue is a property of the wavelengths of light. On the other hand, it is color. • Saturation describes the purity of hue. The lower the saturation of a color, the more "grayness" is present and the more faded the color will appear. • Value refers to the amount of white or black in the color, meaningbrightness(lightness or darkness) of the color.
Saturation • This image shows a scale of saturation from 0% (at the bottom) to 100%. • When there is 0% saturation, the color appears grey.
Lab Color Space • CIE L*a*b* • L*a*b* color is a result of a 1931 attempt to create an international standard for color measurement • Developed by CIE (the International Commission on Illumination) • CIE L*a*b* is the most complete color model used to describe all the colors visible to the human eye. • The Lab color model serves as a device independent, absolute model to be used as a reference.
Lab Color Space • CIE L*a*b* • L*a*b* color has a lightness component (L), and two chromatic components, A and B channels • A channel controls the color from green to red • B channel controls the color from blue to yellow
Lab Color Space • Composed of 3 parts • L or Luminance • a color from green to red • b color from blue to yellow
Hexadecimal Color • To define colors in a Web page, use 2-digit hexadecimal numbers to define the color. • To calculate hex you need to know the RGB specification you want to convert. • Example R:222 G:39 B:151 = DE3997 • Web safe palette contained 216 colors
Gamut • Describes the range of colors available in a certain color space that can be displayed on a monitor or printed. • The RGB gamut contains the colors that can be accurately viewed on a color monitor
Gamut • The CMYK model has the smallest gamut, and represents color that can be printed with cyan, magenta, yellow, and black process inks • Part of preparing an image for prints is the process of “correcting” out-of-gamut colors, usually by reducing their intensity or contrast • By far, the L*a*b* color model has the largest gamut of all the color models. It contains all the colors in both the RGB and CMYK color models
Monochromatic color scheme :same hue with different values. Color Schemes Monochromatic Color Scheme
Monochromatic color scheme • Pros:The monochromatic scheme is easy to manage, and always looks balanced and visually appealing. • Cons:This scheme lacks color contrast. It is not as vibrant as the complementary scheme. • Tips: • 1. Use tints, shades, and tones of the key color to enhance the scheme. • 2. Try the analogous scheme; it offers more nuances while retaining the simplicity and elegance of the monochromatic scheme.
Analog color scheme :the colors that are adjacent to each other on the color wheel Color Schemes Analog Color Scheme
Analogous color scheme • Pros:The analogous color scheme is as easy to create as the monochromatic, but looks richer. • Cons:The analogous color scheme lacks color contrast. it is not as vibrant as the complementary scheme. • Tips: • 1. Avoid using too many hues in the analogous scheme, because this may ruin the harmony. • 2. Avoid combining warm and cool colors in this scheme.
Complementary color scheme:the colors that lie directly across from one another on the color wheel. Color Schemes Complementary Color Scheme
Complementary color scheme • Pros:The complementary color scheme offers stronger contrast than any other color scheme, and draws maximum attention. • Cons:This scheme is harder to balance than monochromatic and analogous schemes, especially when desaturated warm colors are used.
Complementary color scheme • Tips: • 1.For best results, place cool colors against warm ones, for example, blue versus orange. • 2. If you use a warm color (red or yellow) as an accent, you can desaturate the opposite cool colors to put more emphasis on the warm colors. • 3.Avoid using desaturated warm colors (e.g. browns or dull yellows) • 4. Try the split complementary scheme; it is similar to the complementary scheme but offers more variety.
Split complementary color scheme:a variation of the standard complementary scheme. It uses a color and the two colors adjacent to its complementary. Color Schemes Split Complementary Color Scheme
Split complementary color scheme • Pros:The split complementary scheme offers more nuances than the complementary scheme while retaining strong visual contrast. • Cons:The split complementary scheme is harder to balance than monochromatic and analogous color schemes. • Tips: • 1. Use a single warm color against a range of cool colors to put an emphasis on the warm color (red versus blues and blue-greens, or orange versus blues and blue-violets)ใ • 2. Avoid using desaturated warm colors (e.g. browns or dull yellows), because this may ruin the scheme.
Triadic complementary color scheme:three colors equally spaced around the color wheel. This scheme is popular among artists because it offers strong visual contrast while remaining harmony and richness Color Schemes Triadic Color Scheme
Triadic color scheme • Pros:The triadic color scheme offers high contrast while retaining harmony. • Cons:The triadic color scheme is not as contrasting as the complementary scheme. • Tips: • 1. Choose one color to be used in larger amounts than others. • 2. If the colors look gaudy, try to subdue them.
Tetradic (Double Complementary) color scheme :uses two complementary color pairs . Color Schemes Tetradic Color Scheme
Tetradic (double complementary) color scheme • Pros:The tetradic scheme offers more color variety than any other scheme. • Cons:This scheme is the hardest scheme to balance. • Tips: • 1. If the scheme looks unbalanced, try to subdue one or more colors. • 2. Avoid using pure colors in equal amounts.