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Chapter 12 DNA & RNA. Section 12-3 RNA & Protein Synthesis. Types of RNA. RNA Used For Protein Synthesis Three Types of RNA Messenger RNA, mRNA Ribosomal RNA, rRNA Transfer RNA, tRNA. Types of RNA. mRNA

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Chapter 12 dna rna

Chapter 12DNA & RNA

Section 12-3RNA & Protein Synthesis


Types of rna
Types of RNA

RNA Used For Protein Synthesis

Three Types of RNA

Messenger RNA, mRNA

Ribosomal RNA, rRNA

Transfer RNA, tRNA


Types of rna1
Types of RNA

mRNA

Template to construct protein. It brings the message from the DNA to the ribosome.

rRNA

Part of ribosome structure

tRNA

Transports amino acids from cytoplasm to the ribosomes


Transcription
Transcription

The process of copying part of the DNA nucleotide sequence into a complementary sequence of RNA


Transcription1
Transcription

Requires the enzyme RNA Polymerase

Step 1. RNA polymerase binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands.

Step 2.RNA Polymerase uses one strand of DNA as a template to polymerize nucleotides into RNA


Rna editing
RNA Editing

After Making mRNA Introns

Are Snipped Out

Exons Remain,

(active segments of nucleotides)


The genetic code
The Genetic Code

Proteins are long chains of amino acids.

There are 20 different amino acids

The order of amino acids in the protein determine its shape and function


The genetic code1
The Genetic Code

There are 20 amino acids but only

4 bases in RNA

Adenine A

Cytosine C

Guanine G

Uracil U


The genetic code2
The Genetic Code

The genetic code consists of “words” three bases long

Each “word” is called a Codon:

three consecutive nucleotides that specifies a single amino acid


The genetic code3
The Genetic Code

For Example:

UCGCACGGU = RNA Sequence

UCG-CAC-GGU = Codons

UCG codes for Serine

CAC codes for Histidine

GGU codes for Glycine



The genetic code4
The Genetic Code

4 Bases

Codons Defined with 3 Bases

There Are 64 Possible

3-base codons

Since there are only 20 amino acids, some amino acids are represented by multiple codons


Translation
Translation

Translation is the process of of decoding the mRNA into a polypeptide chain

  • Ribosomes

    • Read mRNA and construct the proteins


Translation step 1
Translation Step 1

  • mRNA leaves the Nucleus


Translation step 2
Translation Step 2

  • mRNA binds to the ribosome. tRNA attaches

  • Anticodons on the tRNA line up with codons on mRNA The other end of the tRNA is an amino acid


Translation step 3
Translation Step 3

  • Ribosome connects the amino acids together as they come into the ribosome


Translation1
Translation

  • Step 4

    • A polypeptide (Chain of Amino Acids) is formed.

    • Polypeptide chain grows until the mRNA STOP Codon is reached


The roles of rna dna
The Roles of RNA & DNA

DNA =

Master Plan

RNA =

Blueprints of the Master Plan


Proteins
Proteins

  • At the end of translation a protein is formed.

  • Proteins are enzymes that catalyze and regulate chemical reactions

  • Proteins can also be structural.