Chapter 12 dna rna
1 / 19

Chapter 12 DNA & RNA - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Chapter 12 DNA & RNA. Section 12-3 RNA & Protein Synthesis. Types of RNA. RNA Used For Protein Synthesis Three Types of RNA Messenger RNA, mRNA Ribosomal RNA, rRNA Transfer RNA, tRNA. Types of RNA. mRNA

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Chapter 12 DNA & RNA' - whilemina-harper

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Chapter 12 dna rna

Chapter 12DNA & RNA

Section 12-3RNA & Protein Synthesis

Types of rna
Types of RNA

RNA Used For Protein Synthesis

Three Types of RNA

Messenger RNA, mRNA

Ribosomal RNA, rRNA

Transfer RNA, tRNA

Types of rna1
Types of RNA


Template to construct protein. It brings the message from the DNA to the ribosome.


Part of ribosome structure


Transports amino acids from cytoplasm to the ribosomes


The process of copying part of the DNA nucleotide sequence into a complementary sequence of RNA


Requires the enzyme RNA Polymerase

Step 1. RNA polymerase binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands.

Step 2.RNA Polymerase uses one strand of DNA as a template to polymerize nucleotides into RNA

Rna editing
RNA Editing

After Making mRNA Introns

Are Snipped Out

Exons Remain,

(active segments of nucleotides)

The genetic code
The Genetic Code

Proteins are long chains of amino acids.

There are 20 different amino acids

The order of amino acids in the protein determine its shape and function

The genetic code1
The Genetic Code

There are 20 amino acids but only

4 bases in RNA

Adenine A

Cytosine C

Guanine G

Uracil U

The genetic code2
The Genetic Code

The genetic code consists of “words” three bases long

Each “word” is called a Codon:

three consecutive nucleotides that specifies a single amino acid

The genetic code3
The Genetic Code

For Example:


UCG-CAC-GGU = Codons

UCG codes for Serine

CAC codes for Histidine

GGU codes for Glycine

The genetic code4
The Genetic Code

4 Bases

Codons Defined with 3 Bases

There Are 64 Possible

3-base codons

Since there are only 20 amino acids, some amino acids are represented by multiple codons


Translation is the process of of decoding the mRNA into a polypeptide chain

  • Ribosomes

    • Read mRNA and construct the proteins

Translation step 1
Translation Step 1

  • mRNA leaves the Nucleus

Translation step 2
Translation Step 2

  • mRNA binds to the ribosome. tRNA attaches

  • Anticodons on the tRNA line up with codons on mRNA The other end of the tRNA is an amino acid

Translation step 3
Translation Step 3

  • Ribosome connects the amino acids together as they come into the ribosome


  • Step 4

    • A polypeptide (Chain of Amino Acids) is formed.

    • Polypeptide chain grows until the mRNA STOP Codon is reached

The roles of rna dna
The Roles of RNA & DNA


Master Plan


Blueprints of the Master Plan


  • At the end of translation a protein is formed.

  • Proteins are enzymes that catalyze and regulate chemical reactions

  • Proteins can also be structural.