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Mega Projects

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  1. Mega Projects Aswan Dam - Egypt

  2. Aswan dams are 2 dams - one built in 1902 and the other in 1970 Aim of projects were to regulate river flooding (irrigation and electricity) Nile River used to flood each year (summer) Floods --> high water & natural nutrients and minerals (fertile soil in Nile valley)

  3. With Population growth and environmental conditions changed --> need to control flood waters to both protect and support farmland especially cotton fields Reservoir storage provided by these dams --> floods could be lessened & water be stored for later

  4. Dam is 3,830 m long 980m wide at the base, 40m wide at the crest and 11m tall 43 million km3 of material 11,000 km3 (max) of H2O can pass through the dam every second The reservoir (Lake Nasser) is 550 km long and 35 km at its widest with a surface area of 5,250 km2 It holds 111 km3 of H2O

  5. Political Impacts • Rivalry between U.S.S.R & U.S.A. • U.S initially agreed to fund construction of dam • July 19th 1956 U.S. withdrew offer to finance (not happy with Egyptian President Nasser)

  6. Political Impacts • 1 week later Nasser announced dam would be build with funds from Suez canal (funded by Soviets) • Soviets wanted to “drown capitalism in the African continent --> dam 1st step • Media --> global awareness of dam - American journalists published articles condemning it due to social, economic and social impacts • 1st major Soviet-assisted structure in Africa

  7. Environmental Impacts • Constant source of H2O to the people of Egypt • Helps control the flooding of the Nile River • Allows for several crops to be grown in a year • Hydroelectric equipment produces about half of all Egypt's electric power • more of the land around the Nile River used for crop growing • Created Lake Nasser --> provides for recreation and a greater fishing industry in the inland regions

  8. Environmental Impacts • Changed river --> glorified canal • Reduce its length (& # of islands from 150to 36) • Drop in river-bed level downstream caused by erosion by flow of silt free water (silt now deposited behind the dam) to 3m from 8.5m

  9. Environmental Impacts • Prior to dam - floods used to deposit 12 million tonnes of silt along Nile (in soil fertility lead to use of fertilizer) •  in land productivity due to over-irrigation and poor drainage ( in groundwater level of irrigation areas Fish catch in Mediterranean but Nasser Lake created new source of fish

  10. Economic Impacts • Cost of dam ~ 1 billion dollars-> recovered in 2 years (agriculture and hydro, navigation) • Egypt's agricultural income  by 200% • Allows for several crops to be grown in a year • Hydroelectric equipment produces about half of all Egypt's electric power • more of the land around the Nile River used for crop growing

  11. Economic Impacts • Development of the fertilizer and metal industries --> jobs and income • Made travel between Sudan and Egypt easier •  the potential for tourism along the Nile River and throughout Egypt

  12. Social Impacts • Development of Hydro plants improved cost & reliability of Egypt’s power supply (dam responsible for 22% of country’s supply) • Also supplies rural villages (4500 villages, factories and irrigation pumping stations • Helped SOL and industrialization • Nile is safely navigable year round • .

  13. Social Impacts • 120,000 Nubian people relocated • Many rare archaeological sites were flooded • Many precious ancient monuments relocated at a cost of $40 million US • ABU SIMBEL • Nubian