Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
2 1 0 0 EFA Global Monitoring Report Reaching the marginalized Kevin Watkins Berne, 3 February 2010
120 100 72 million 80 3 56 million 6 60 9 40 18 8 million 20 32 23 million 0 2007 2015 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Numbers of out-of-school children are declining • But still 56 million children out of school in 2015, and real numbers could be much higher Out-of-school children (millions) Out-of-school children 105 million Latin America and the Caribbean 4 8 Arab States Rest of the World East Asia and the Pacific 6 Latin America and the Caribbean South and West Asia Arab States 39 million East Asia and the Pacific Sub-Saharan Africa 45 million 1999
The global quality divide In Ghana, nearly 90% of 8th grade students score below the low benchmark
Marginalization in education What is it? “Clearly remediable injustices around us which we want to eliminate”The idea of justice,Amartya Sen The Report focuses on: Measuring marginalization – new national data (DME data set) Drivers of marginalization – causes such as poverty, gender, language, location, disability which intersect – and are reinforced by social attitudes Remedies – Policies for reaching and teaching the marginalized
Ukraine Cuba Rural Bolivia Urban Indonesia Honduras Urban Cameroon Bangladesh Rural Chad C. A. R. Education marginalization – inequalities within countries The case of Nigeria 14 12 10.3 years 10 years Rich, rural boys 9.7 years Rich, urban boys 10 Richest 20% Rich, rural girls Boys 8 Girls Average number of years of schooling Nigeria Poor, urban boys 6.4 years 6.7 years 6 4 Education poverty Poorest 20% 3.5 years 3.3 years Poor, rural girls 2.6 years 2 Extreme education poverty Rural Hausa Poor, rural Hausa girls 0 0.3 years 0.5 years
Country average Group average Overlapping disadvantage influence years in school Extreme education poverty % with less than 2 years of education (age 17-22) Nigeria , poor, Hausa, girls • In Kenya, 96% of rural Somali girls (aged 17-22) have less than 2 years of education. • The current primary net attendance rate for Somali girls is only 30%. 25% 97% Kenya , rural, Somali, girls 8% 96% Ghana , northern region, rural, girls 17% 84% Pakistan , rural, Sindhi, girls 31% 73% India , poor, Uttar Pradesh, girls 20% 57%
Getting left behind – drivers of marginalization What are the causes? Educational marginalization driven by interacting layers of disadvantage Five key processes which drive marginalization: Poverty, vulnerability and child labour Group-based disadvantages Location and livelihoods Disability HIV and AIDs
Leveling the playing field The inclusive education triangle Three broad sets of policies which can combat marginalization
Aid to basic education – a worrying picture? 12.3 12.1 12.0 10.4 9.9 9.5 8.2 7.9 7.6 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 • Disbursements are rising , but... • Aid commitments to basic education fell by 22% in 2007, to US$4.3 billion • Currently US$2.7 billion in aid to basic education for 46 low income countries Total aid to education Total aid to basic education Constant 2007 US$ billions 5.6 5.5 4.5 4.3 4.0 3.4 3.4 3.2 3.2 Commitments
The Education for All financing gap The EFA financing gap = 2% of bank rescue effort in the US and UK Average annual resources needed to finance EFA (2009-2015) US$36 billion 40 Aid shortfall $ 11 billion 35 EFA 30 financing gap Additional aid to basic education if Gleneagles commitments are met In 2010 25 $ 16 billion 20 $ 2 billion Additional resources from prioritization $ 4 billion $ 3 billion 15 Current aid to basic education Additional resources from growth $ 3 billion 10 Estimated current 5 resources $ 12 billion 0
The multilateral architecture – needs reform The Fast Track Initiative (FTI) has made some important achievements, with good practice (support for national planning) US $491 million disbursed through the Catalytic Fund Major challenges Poor disbursement record and low political support No funding from private or philanthropic sources Conflict-affected countries are weakly covered Reform priorities Lessons drawn from global health funds Greater political leadership and revitalized agenda in 2010
Conclusions Set equity-based targets for all EFA goals and monitor their progress. Identify the drivers of marginalization for specific groups and adopt integrated policies that address them. Integrate provision by NGOs within national education systems and expand the entitlements of the marginalized. Increase resource mobilization and strengthen equity in public spending. Honour aid commitments and strengthen the multilateralarchitecture for aid to education. Convene a high-level pledging event linked to the 2010 Millennium Development Goals summit.
2 1 0 0 EFA Global Monitoring Report www.efareport.unesco.org