Energy Technology R&D Funding. November, 2004. Key Energy Technology Investment Trends. General Trends
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R&D as % of Net Sales by Industry
Source: Margolis and Kammen
Government Energy R&D Budget
Billion 1995 US$
D = +129%
Note: Government energy R&D budgets for selected IEA countries showing the difference in spending D between 1980 and 1995. Data for France before 1990 are unavailable, and while we display 1990 and 1995 data for France, this comparison likely understates the decline in R&D funding in France.