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University of Palestine Faculty of Applied Engineering and Urban Planning Department of Architecture 1 st Semester 2010 -2011. Architecture Conservation ( EAGD 5120 ) Lecture 5 Aspects of Architectural conservation – Technical Aspects (Cont.) + Legal Aspects Dr. Nihad M. Almughany.

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University of PalestineFaculty of Applied Engineering and Urban PlanningDepartment of Architecture1st Semester 2010 -2011

Architecture Conservation ( EAGD 5120 )

Lecture 5

Aspects of Architectural conservation – Technical Aspects (Cont.) + Legal Aspects

Dr. Nihad M. Almughany

5 technical aspects cont
5- TECHNICAL ASPECTS (Cont.)
  • 5- Main Restoration works :
    • A- CONSOLIDATION : التدعيم
5 technical aspects cont1
5- TECHNICAL ASPECTS (Cont.)
  • Main Restoration works
    • B- REMOVAL OF ANY ADDITIVE HARMFUL MATERIALS :
      • طبقات الخرسانة على الأسقف
      • القصارة الاسمنتية
      • البلاط السيراميك على الجدران
      • التمديدات المختلفة
      • أي عناصر مضافة وضارة أخرى

ملاحظة : حفظ العناصر المكشوفة بعد ازالة المواد من العوامل الخارجية مثل تغطية الأسقف حتى يتم معالجتها

5 technical aspects cont2
5- TECHNICAL ASPECTS (Cont.)
  • Main Restoration works :
    • C- REMOVAL AND PREVENTION OF DAMP:التخلص من الرطوبة ومنعها
      • كشف وتهوية الأسقف فترة كافية
      • كشف وتهوية الحوائط
      • كشف الأساسات وتهويتها فهي مصدر الخاصية الشعرية عن طريق حفر خنادق تهوية و / أو حقن مواد عازلة
      • منع تسلل الرطوبة من خلال عناصر المبنى ( الأسقف – الحوائط – العتبات – الشبابيك والأبواب – الأساسات – الحلول )
5 technical aspects cont3
5- TECHNICAL ASPECTS (Cont.)
  • Main Restoration works
    • D- REMOVAL OF BOTANIC AND BIOLOGICAL ELEMENTS:
    • التخلص من العناصر البيولوجية والنباتية ومنعها
      • طرق الازالة التقليدية
      • الطرق الكيماوية
      • الطرق الايكولوجية
5 technical aspects cont4
5- TECHNICAL ASPECTS (Cont.)
  • Main Restoration works :
    • E- STRUCTURAL FITTNESS OF ELEMENTS.
    • F- TREATMENT OF DIFFERENT WORKS
      • F1 – Stone Works
5 technical aspects cont5
5- TECHNICAL ASPECTS (Cont.)
  • Main Restoration works :
    • F2 – Iron Works
5 technical aspects cont6
5- TECHNICAL ASPECTS (Cont.)
  • Main Restoration works :
    • F3 – Glass Works
5 technical aspects cont7
5- TECHNICAL ASPECTS (Cont.)
  • Main Restoration works :
    • F4 – Lead Works
5 technical aspects cont8
5- TECHNICAL ASPECTS (Cont.)
  • Main Restoration works :
      • F5 – Wood Works
2 aspects ofarchitectural conservation
2- ASPECTS OFARCHITECTURAL CONSERVATION

CULTURAL ASPECTS

SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS

TECHNICAL ASPECTS

LEGAL ASPECTS

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3 legal aspects
3- LEGAL ASPECTS

Legislation is one of the most important aspects of conservation strategies. Many countries around the world have established conservation legislation to protect their built historic heritage.

Conservation legislation differs from one place to another according to:

The degree of protection,

The provision of incentives,

The delegation of responsibilities to an administrative framework,

The degree of public participation in the conservation process.

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3 legal aspects cont
3- LEGAL ASPECTS (cont.)

Hierarchy of legislation : In general legislation stands in the following hierarchy:

Constitution.

Laws.

Regulations.

Executive Lists.

Ordinances.

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4 the evolution of conservation legislation
4- THE EVOLUTION OF CONSERVATION LEGISLATION

Britain :

Ancient Monument Protection Act ( 1882)

Town and Country Planning Act ( 1971 )

The British legislation system is a comprehensive, and protective for as many monuments, buildings, sites, areas, gardens as possible. On the other hand, consents are available although it is rather complicated process. This makes it difficult for flexibility and change .

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4 the evolution of conservation legislation cont
4- THE EVOLUTION OF CONSERVATION LEGISLATION (cont.)

France :

The Commission des Monuments Historique (1906 )

Malraux Act to protect urban centers ( 1962 )

The French conservation legislative system is characterised by its encouragement to the rehabilitation of historic buildings and areas.

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4 the evolution of conservation legislation cont1
4- THE EVOLUTION OF CONSERVATION LEGISLATION (cont.)

USA :

Antiquities Act ( 1906 )

National Historic Preservation Act ( 1966 )

The US conservation legislation is (flexible) and characterised by its provision of tax incentives.

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4 the evolution of conservation legislation cont2
4- THE EVOLUTION OF CONSERVATION LEGISLATION (cont.)

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  • Egypt:
    • قانون رقم 4 لتنظيم التنقيب عن الآثار وتملكها ( 1912 )
    • قانون حماية الآثار no. 117 ( 1983 )
  • Saudi Arabia:
    • نظام الآثار ( 1971 )
  • Palestine:
    • قانون الآثار القديمة رقم 51 / 1929 وتعديلاته 1934 و1937 و1943 و1946
4 the evolution of conservation legislation cont3
4- THE EVOLUTION OF CONSERVATION LEGISLATION (cont.)

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  • Conclusion on the evolution of the conservation legislation:
    • Changes in legislation usually follow changes in attitudes and in society.
    • Early legislation focused on monuments protection, while recent legislation focuses with concentration on area conservation, change and adaptive reuse.
    • The development in legislation occurs in many countries approximately at the same period.
    • Conservation legislation in Palestine depends on an old law without regard to contemporary changes.
5 the degree of protection
5- THE DEGREE OF PROTECTION

The British legislation’s philosophy is to protect as much as possible through the listing of buildings and the designation of conservation areas. At the same time, it allows consents for demolition, alterations or interventions throughout a specific process.

Generally, there is nothing in the legislation to prevent radical alteration or even demolition of historic buildings in the USA.

Palestinian legislative law protects “ archaeological buildings” from demolition or alteration.

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6 incentives
6- INCENTIVES

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  • British Legislation allows tax relief and exemptions. Tax relief is very limited and not compulsory, and only the approved alterations to protected listed buildings are zero-rated.
  • A historic building may in many cases, be the only or principal residence of an individual private taxpayer. Where this is so, capital gain tax (CGT) is not payable on its disposal .
6 incentives1
6- INCENTIVES

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  • Besides tax relief, the British legislation allows different sources of finance. Grants and loans may be given towards the cost of restoring individual historic buildings of outstanding interest by English Heritage (EH). Finance also may be available for other individual historic buildings by local authorities.
  • In USA there is an effective legislative programme with tax incentives. This was represented in the Tax Reform Act 1976. Tax incentives take the form of tax relief on the profits or income of an organisation or individual applied at a national level, or property tax concessions for historic buildings which may be used by local authorities.
6 incentives2
6- INCENTIVES

Local authorities had mostly granted the budgets needed to finance the conservation strategies in some parts of Saudi Arabia. There were also steps to encourage private sector participation in finance.

One of the most distinguished articles of the 1983 Act in Egypt is the one that gives authority to the SCA to finance and implement any maintenance works required for listed buildings . The existing legislation does not include financial incentives for the conservation of historic buildings or conservation areas.

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7 responsibility
7- RESPONSIBILITY

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  • Powers given to implement legislation are varied. Conservation legal responsibility could be either at local level (Local Authority), or at national level (Government institute).
  • In Britain, powers are delegated to local authorities under planning regulations and national TCPA. Also central power is delegated to EH (national institution).
  • The administrative system in the USA is more centralised as the National Park Service is responsible for the conservation of historic buildings and areas.
7 responsibility1
7- RESPONSIBILITY

The French Law of 1962 presents a full co-operation between town planning, housing, and historic environment organisations, but the major responsibility lies with the Ministry of Cultural Affairs and Works.

In Saudi Arabia The parties involved in legislation are the Archaeology Directory, the High Archaeology Council and the municipalities.

In Egypt the SCA is authorised to co-ordinate conservation works with other relevant institutions in planning, housing, tourism and others.

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7 responsibility2
7- RESPONSIBILITY

Recent conservation trends strongly recommend giving legal responsibility through local development plans. This is done successfully in Britain, France, the USA, Tunisia, Sana'a, Manama and Jeddah.

Conclusion: Conservation legislation must give power to administrative frameworks to be able to implement conservation strategies. The absence of responsibility delegation leads to miscoordination and failure.

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8 public participation
8- PUBLIC PARTICIPATION

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  • Supporters for participation argue that the consultation of the public is needed to guarantee the success of policy implementation.
  • Traditionally, existing British legislation does not give the right for the public to participate in the listing process. It is not statutory for local authorities to consult the public and they can designate conservation areas without any prior notice- although this usually happens-.
9 ideal conservation legislation
9- IDEAL CONSERVATION LEGISLATION

The ideal conservation legislation has to include guidelines for the following items:

Building conservation.

Area conservation.

Incentives.

Finance.

Responsibility.

Penalties.

Legislation should also be clear and has an explanation and execution lists.

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10 the conservation legislation in palestine
10-THE CONSERVATION LEGISLATION IN PALESTINE

In class discussion and readings for the conservation legislation in Palestine, especially the “ Old Archaeology Act” and Town Planning Act.

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