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Industrial Revolution. Three Views of the Industrial Revolution Technological Change Social Change Prime Actors/Industrialists. The Industrial Age Cometh!!!. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jcr-KLBOhv8. Industrial Revolution -- Definition.

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Three Views of the Industrial Revolution Technological Change Social Change


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    1. Industrial Revolution Three Views of the Industrial Revolution • Technological Change • Social Change • Prime Actors/Industrialists

    2. The Industrial Age Cometh!!! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jcr-KLBOhv8 Industrial Revolution

    3. Industrial Revolution -- Definition • Prime foci were technology and organization transforming the way in which goods production was accomplished and organized --Unprecedented expansion of output and productivity • Resulted in and from new organizational, social, economic, and political inventions and developments – not just industrial ones Industrial Revolution

    4. Impacts of Industrial Revolution • Substantial increase in Quality of Life (QOL) including standard of living • Demographic Transition (especially in the Western World) • Set the stage for modern phase of Globalization and all of its impacts Industrial Revolution

    5. Three Approaches • Technological Approach emphasizes the mechanics of the production • Social Approach emphasized changing societal structures and relationships • Inventor/Entrepreneur/Industrialist Approach emphasizes the Great Individual Industrial Revolution

    6. Current Distribution of Major Industrial Regions Worldwide Note how few and concentrated these are and no major concentration in Africa as yet Industrial Revolution

    7. Consequences in Pollution Estimated PM10 Concentrations in World Cities Having More than 100,000 People http://www.gore.com/en_xx/products/filtration/cooling/cooling_pollution_map.html Industrial Revolution

    8. Part 1: The Technical Hypothesis Source: Dr Raymond L Sanders Jr Geography University of Texas at Austin • Web source www.utexas.edu/depts/grg/sanders/GRG305/PowerPoint/Industrial%20Geography%20-%20Part%20I.ppt Industrial Revolution

    9. Sander’s Learning Objective • Tracing the development of the Industrial Revolution to Technological Innovations 2. Discussing its spread across the landscape Industrial Revolution

    10. Two great economic “revolutions” occurred in human development • Agricultural Revolution -- Domestication of plants and animals occurred in our dim prehistory (8,000bc approx.) • Ultimately resulted in a huge increase in human population • Greatly accelerated modification of the physical environment • Resulted in major cultural readjustments Industrial Revolution

    11. Two great economic “revolutions” occurred in human development • The Industrial Revolution, started in the eighteenth century, is still taking place today • Involves a series of inventions leading to the use of machines and inanimate power in the manufacturing process • Suddenly whole societies could engage in seemingly limitless multiplication of goods and services • Rapid bursts of human inventiveness followed • Gigantic population increases Industrial Revolution

    12. Two great economic “revolutions” occurred in human development • The Industrial Revolution, started in the eighteenth century, is still taking place today • Massive, often unsettling, remodeling of the environment (human and physical) • Today, few lands remain largely untouched by its machines, factories, transportation devices, and communication techniques • On an individual level, no facet of North American life remains unaffected • Just about every object and every event in your life is affected, if not actually created, by the Industrial Revolution What’s this??? Industrial Revolution

    13. Introduction • Life before the Industrial Revolution • People were concerned with the most basic of primary economic activities • Acquired the necessities of survival from the land • Society and culture was overwhelmingly rural and agricultural • Before 1700 virtually all manufacturing was carried on in two systems, cottage and guild industries, both depended on hand labor and human power Industrial Revolution

    14. Introduction • Cottage industry • Most common, was practiced in farm homes and rural villages • Usually a sideline to agriculture • Objects for family use were made in each household • Most villages had a cobbler, miller, weaver, and smith who worked part-time at home • Skills passed from parents to children with little formality Industrial Revolution

    15. Introduction • Guild industry • Consisted of professional organizations of highly skilled, specialized artisans engaged full time in their trades and based in towns and cities • Membership came after a long apprenticeship • Was a fraternal organization of artisans skilled in a particular craft Industrial Revolution

    16. Origins of the Industrial Revolution • Arose among back-country English cottage craftspeople in the early 1700s • First: human hands were replaced by machines in fashioning finished products • Rendered old manufacturing definition(“made by hand”) obsolete – new definition emerges • Manufacturing transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale, or intermediate processes involving the production or finishing of semi-manufactures. .wikipedia.org/wiki/Manufacturing Industrial Revolution

    17. Origins of the Industrial Revolution • First: human hands were replaced by machines in fashioning finished products • Weavers no longer sat at a hand loom, instead large mechanical looms were invented to do the job faster and more economically Industrial Revolution

    18. The Water Frame (Richard Arckwright) Second: Human power gave way to various forms of inanimate power Industrial Revolution

    19. Origins of the Industrial Revolution • Second: Human power gave way … http://www.sheepoverboard.com/ovine/shearing-2.html • Machines were driven by water power, burning of fossil fuels, and later hydroelectricity and the energy of the atom • Men and women became tenders of machines instead of producers of fine hand made goods Industrial Revolution

    20. Origins of the Industrial Revolution • Within 150 years, the Industrial Revolution greatly altered the first three sectors of industrial activity • Textiles • Metallurgy • Mining Industrial Revolution

    21. Origins of the Industrial Revolution • Textiles • Initial breakthrough occurred in the British cotton textile cottage industry, centered in the Lancashire district of western England • First changes were modest and on a small scale • Mechanical looms, powered by flowing water were invented • Industries remained largely rural • Diffused hierarchically to sites of rushing streams Industrial Revolution

    22. Water Power to Finished Cloth http://personalweb.smcvt.edu/winooskimills/millshistory/architecture and engineering/looms.htm Industrial Revolution

    23. Origins of the Industrial Revolution • Textiles • Later in the eighteenth century invention of the steam engine provided a better source of power • In the United states, textile plants were also the first factories Industrial Revolution

    24. Origins of the Industrial Revolution • Metallurgy • Traditionally, metal industries had been small-scale, rural enterprises Industrial Revolution

    25. Origins of the Industrial Revolution • Metallurgy • Situated near ore sources • Forests provided charcoal for smelting process • Chemical changes that occurred in steel making remained mysterious even to craftspeople who used them • Techniques had changed little since the beginning of the Iron Age, 2500 years before Industrial Revolution

    26. Origins of the Industrial Revolution • Metallurgy • In the 1700s, inventions by iron makers in the Coalbrookdale of English Midlands, created a new scientific, large-scale industry • Coke, nearly pure carbon, which is derived from nearly pure coal, replaced charcoal in the smelting process • Large blast furnaces replaced the forge • Efficient rolling mills took the place of hammer and anvil • Mass production of steel resulted Industrial Revolution

    27. Origins of the Industrial Revolution • Mining • First to feel effects of new technology was coal mining • Adoption of steam engine necessitated huge amounts of coal to fire boilers • Conversion to coke further increased demand for coal • Fortunately, Britain had large coal deposits • New mining techniques and tools were invented • Coal mining became a large-scale mechanized industry Industrial Revolution

    28. Origins of the Industrial Revolution • Mining • Because coal is heavy and bulky, manufacturing industries began flocking to the coal fields, to be near supplies • Similar modernization occurred in mining of iron ore, copper, and other metals needed by growing industries Industrial Revolution

    29. Coalfields in UK Became centers for 19th Century Industrialization Consider the relationship of coalfields in the US and our Industrial Belt (now the Rust Belt) Industrial Revolution

    30. Origins of the Industrial Revolution • Railroads • Wooden sailing ships gave way to steel vessels driven by steam engines • Canals were built • British-invented railroad came on the scene • Need to move raw materials and finished products from place to place, cheaply and quickly, was main stimulus leading to transportation breakthroughs Industrial Revolution

    31. Origins of the Industrial Revolution • Railroads • Impact of the Industrial Revolution would have been minimized if distribution of goods and services had not been improved • British revolutionized shipbuilding industry and dominated it from their Scottish shipyards even into the twentieth century • New modes of transport fostered additional cultural diffusion • New industrial-age popular culture could easily penetrate previously untouched areas Industrial Revolution

    32. Diffusion from Britain • For a century, Britain held a virtual monopoly on its industrial innovations • Government actively tried to prevent diffusion • Gave Britain enormous economic advantage • Contributed greatly to growth and strength of British Empire Industrial Revolution

    33. Diffusion from Britain • The technology finally diffused beyond the British Isles • Continental Europe first received its impact in last half of the nineteenth century • Took firm root hierarchically in coal fields of Germany, Belgium, and other nations of northwestern and Central Europe • Diffusion of railroads provides a good index Industrial Revolution

    34. Introduction of Railroads in Europe Over the 19th Century Industrial Revolution

    35. Diffusion from Britain • The technology finally diffused beyond the British Isles • United States began rapid adoption of new technology about 1850 • About 1900, Japan was the first major non-Western country to undergo full industrialization • In the first third of the 1900s, diffusion spilled into Russia and Ukraine • Recently, countries such as Taiwan, South Korea, China, Indian, and Singapore joined the manufacturing age Industrial Revolution

    36. Diffusion of Industrial Revolution in 19th and 20th Centuries Industrial Revolution

    37. End of technological diffusion hypothesis Industrial Revolution

    38. Part 2: The Social Organizational Hypothesis Source: Mike Reibel - Associate Professor Department of Geography and Anthropology California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, CA 91768 • Web Source www.csupomona.edu/~mreibel/Class_Pages/GEO312/GEO32 Industrial Revolution

    39. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0AY09DJkQMY&feature=related Industrial Revolution

    40. Reibel’s Learning Objectives • Understand how changing social organization lead to the Industrial Revolution • Outline several stages of development in the Industrial Revolution based on Kondratiev’s Cycles Industrial Revolution

    41. Industrial Revolution • First and foremost, a revolution in the organization and control of labor • Capitalist entrepreneurs and managers break down production into bite-sized tasks, hire less skilled workers • Only possible at larger scales due to need to break down tasks, efficiency gains Industrial Revolution

    42. Remember! http://www.inkcinct.com.au/Web/CARTOONS/2005/2005-539P-car-assembly-line.gif • Industrial division of labor, NOT technical innovation, defines industrialization • Strategic investment, not machines, makes industrial production possible • All productivity gains in early industrial age were from labor re-organization Industrial Revolution

    43. Ford Assembly Line: Grinding Monotony Henry had to pay well or no one would stay Industrial Revolution

    44. Capitalist Competition and Technical Innovation • Capitalist industry and faster technical innovation happened separately in 1700s • Slowly, technical innovation became a strategy for industrial competition • Material progress from this combination - “spirit of innovation”, confidence in humans’ ability to control nature Industrial Revolution

    45. Product Innovation vs. Process Innovation • Product Innovation: Development of new products or new capabilities and features for existing products • Process Innovation: New production processes that reduce unit cost: • new machines or equipment • innovations in operations management (organization of labor & production tasks) Industrial Revolution

    46. Evolution of Industrial Regions • Continual expansion of long-distance trade due to transport cost declines, leads to: • Greater specialization of production for export from region, less local self-sufficiency 5. Opium and the expansion of trade By 1690, the Company had trading centres (known as 'factories') all along the West and East coasts of India. The main centres were at Madras, Calcutta and Bombay. The Company started to protect its trade with its own armies and navies - very different from most companies today http://www.bl.uk/learning/histcitizen/trading/story/trade/4tradingplaces.html Industrial Revolution

    47. Evolution of Industrial Regions • Expansion of specialized business services to match local production specialties: transport, wholesale, finance, legal, advertising, etc. The Managing Committee House of the Insurance Company "Russia" in St.Petersburg http://all-photo.ru/empire/index.en.html?img=14983&big=on Industrial Revolution

    48. Technology and Corporate Strategy • Product chains grow longer, leads to: • Competitive advantage thru vertical integration • Horizontal integration also a growth strategy • Expanding markets and successful growth strategies of firms consolidates market share, Industrial Revolution

    49. Technology and Corporate Strategy • Expanding markets and successful growth strategies of firms consolidates market share, • Eventually leads to monopolies Industrial Revolution

    50. Monopoly Defined http://www.colbertnation.com/the-colbert-report-videos/60116/march-08-2006/the-word---monopoly Industrial Revolution