Communicate positively with Children on an ongoing basis Communication Milestones
Birth to three months • Infants communicate unintentially with sounds and actions • Cry when hungry, cold or uncomfortable • Look at caregivers face and move arms and body reflexively
Two way process begins • When caregiver responds appropriately Infant: Cries Caregiver: Oh dear! What is the matter? Smiles and picks up infant Infant: Stops crying and appears to focus on caregiver’s face Caregiver: You just wanted a cuddle – that’s right now. Are you hungry? Infant: Cooing sound, burps. Caregiver: Oh, that’s what you were telling me. Better now?
Three to 12 Months • Infant’s ability to communicate develops very quickly • More sounds – babbles to self and others • Show interest and gain comfort from familiar voices, singing & conversation • Active communicators using sounds and actions to take turns • Harsh, angry or loud voices or sudden sounds cause distress
Active partners in communication Infant: Gazing at teddy Caregiver: Places blanket over teddy. Where has teddy gone? Infant: Looks at caregiver and smiles, pulls at blanket, laughs when teddy appears. Caregiver: Peek-a-boo, you found teddy Infant: Looks at teddy, shakes blanket Caregiver: Will I do it again? Hides teddy Infant: Smiles, looks at blanket and back to caregiver Caregiver: The blanket, yes, under the blanket. Where is teddy? Find teddy. Infant: Pulls blanket off teddy and giggles
Twelve months to two years • Toddlers use sounds, some words and non-verbal communication • Understand and use gestures and body language • Begin to associate words with familiar people, objects and actions • Understand more words than they can say
Toddlers are active communicators Caregiver: Show me your tummy Toddler: Looks at tummy, pulls up shirt Caregiver: Where’s Daddy Toddler: Points at door
Toddlers can • Communicate with intention • Initiate interaction using communication • Communicate for different purposes • More capable communicators than people think • Identify needs, greet people, draw attention to self, label objects, protest, show off, ask for comfort • Participate as equals and introduce themselves into conversations
Toddlers express ideas using simple language, one or two-word sentences Caregiver: Here Tom – catch the ball Toddler: Points to children in sandpit. Truck, um truck. Caregiver: Yes, they have a truck Toddler: Mine... Truck gone Caregiver: Ah! Did someone take you truck? Toddler: Mmm, Truck brrrmmmm, brmmmm!
Two to three years • Sentences extend to complex sentences and grammar • They make mistakes but meaning is clear Me want a banana All gone doggie? Mine balloon broke He sick, poor him
The ‘here and now’ • I am a big girl now. I got boots • I want more juice • Me no want spoon want fork • The big dog all gone Begin to appreciate rules of language, wait to speak their turn and listen to others. Use ‘me’ and ‘I’ to indicate self-awareness.
Three to five years • Use longer sentences and complex grammar • May use tenses and negatives correctly to talk about past, future and things they have done • Communicate to think, imagine, understand and to express self awareness • Vocabulary – 5,000 words and understand more words • Sentences are longer and more complex. • Tell stories, follow stories, remember poems/songs and enjoy humour • Can follow one-two step instructions.
Language of preschooler I think I’ll go outside to play My dad’s truck uses lots of petrol Let’s put the baby horse to sleep Jon and me built a big tower