Presentation Objectives By the end of the presentation, you should be able to: • Explain what pre-testing is; • Explain why pre-testing is important • Describe how to pre-test and with whom.
What is Pre-testing? Pre-testing is a way of finding out from members of the target audience how to improve preliminary versions of materials. Pre-testing helps avoid costly errors by pinpointing problems before final production and distribution.
Development and Testing • Develop materials • Pretest messages and materials with audience and gatekeepers • Revise • Retest • Complete production of materials
Why Pretest? To determine if messages are: • Appropriate • Understandable by target audience • Non-offensive
What happens when you do not pretest? • Waste resources, time and energy. • May alienate or annoy people. • May become the laughing stock. • May not achieve the desired impact.
A Sign on a Clothing Store in Brussels Reads: Come Inside and Have a Fit
A Sign at Budapest’s Zoo Requests: Please Do Not Feed the Animals. If You Have Any Suitable Food, Give It to the Guard on Duty.
A Sign in a Paris Hotel Lobby Reads: Kindly leave your values at the front desk.
Sign in an Mexican Restaurant: The manager has personally passed all the water served here.
How to Pre-test? • Focus-group discussion • Individual interviews • Expert Reviews
With whom to pre-test • Intended audience • Gate-keepers • Policy-makers, donor agencies • Other relevant audiences • Program managers and staff
Steps to Pre-test • Design the pre-test methodology - Identify audience - Determine method required to capture data - Outline Characteristics and requirements of pre-test respondents - Draft budget and timeline
Steps to Pre-Test, Cont’d 2.Select facilitators for pre-test - Should know the material they are pre- testing - Should speak the language of the participants - Ideally should be ‘similar’ to pre-test participants (gender, age) - Should be able to probe
Steps to Pre-Test, Cont’d 3. Create the pre-test tools after reviewing material with key questions: - What message does the audience get from the product? - Who do they think the product is designed for? - Is it easy to understand the material/message? - Is there anything offensive? If so, what? - Is there anything they don’t understand? What? - What do they like/dislike? - Sounds, voices, etc.
Steps to Pre-Test, Cont’d • Prepare the materials for Pre-test - tape recorders - pictures/ drawings for print material - storyboards for videos
Steps to Pre-test • PRE-TEST - Mobilize participants based on agreed upon demographics - If focus group, use moderator and recorder - Record ALL responses- negative and positive - Consider multiple angles – ie: pretest for content and usability for flip chart
Steps to Pre-test, Cont’d • After the Pre-test - Summarize findings in brief report - Revise materials in accordance with comments if majority made comments or ‘sizable minority’ - Re-test once revisions made - Finalize materials and produce
In summary Revise Make changes based on pretest results for messages, stories, or participatory processes that are not understood correctly, not remembered, or are not socially or culturally acceptable. Retest Retest materials to ensure revisions are done well and make final adjustments before replication, printing, or final productions. Produce and disseminate Develop and implement a dissemination plan that may include local government, NGOs, the private sector, as appropriate, and the media for maximum coverage. Train trainers and field workers Plan for training at all levels. Begin with training of trainers (TOT). Provide continuing opportunities for more training. Concentrate on building institutional capacity and teamwork as well as individual skills.
In summary Mobilize key participants Share information, results, and credit with partners, allies, and communities. Keep everyone involved motivated towards the strategic goal. Manage and monitor programme Check programme outputs to ensure quality and consistency, while maximizing participation. Track existing service statistics and conduct special studies using surveys, focus groups, observation, and other techniques to measure outputs as well as audience reaction. Adjust programme based on monitoring Use data from monitoring to make mid-course corrections or adjustments in activities, materials, and procedures and to fine-tune programme components.