Chapter 10 muscle tissue
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CHAPTER 10 “ Muscle Tissue”. Objectives Describe and identify the 3 major muscle groups (skeletal, cardiac and, smooth). Describe the general anatomy of muscles. Describe the ultra-structure of skeletal muscle and its role in muscle contraction.

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Chapter 10 muscle tissue

CHAPTER 10“Muscle Tissue”


Describe and identify the 3 major muscle groups (skeletal, cardiac and, smooth).

Describe the general anatomy of muscles.

Describe the ultra-structure of skeletal muscle and its role in muscle contraction.

Describe nerve-muscle relationship, the motor unit and the neuromuscular junction.

Define the physiologic fiber types of muscle.

Functions of muscle
Functions of Muscle

  • Movement: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscles

  • Stability: skeletal muscle

  • Communication: skeletal muscle

  • Control of body openings and passages: skeletal and smooth muscles

  • Heat production: skeletal muscles

Properties of muscles
Properties of Muscles

  • Excitability (responsiveness) respond to chemical, mechanical or electrical stimuli

  • Conductivity initiate events that lead to contraction.

  • Contractility ability to shorten substantially

  • Extensibility able to stretch between contractions.

  • Elasticity ability to return to original length after stretching

Three muscle tissues
Three muscle tissues

  • Skeletal muscle

  • Cardiac muscle

    3. Smooth muscle

Skeletal muscle
Skeletal Muscle

  • Cells are long and cylindrical in shape

  • Cells are multi-nucleated

  • Cross-striations present

  • Under voluntary control

  • Contractile proteins: actin, myosin and tinin.

  • Regulatory proteins: troponin and tropomyosin.

  • Sarcomere is contractile unit of skeletal muscle; defined as the distance between 2 “Z” discs

Connective tissues and fascicles
Connective tissues and fascicles

  • Myofibril- composed of bundles of myofilaments

  • Endomysium- reticular CT covering each muscle fiber and binding it to its neighbors.

  • Perimysium- fibrous CT covering muscle fascicles

  • Fascicles- bundles of muscle fibers surrounded by perimysium

  • Epimysium- covering of dense irregular CT surrounding the entire muscle

Skeletal muscle fascicle arrangements
Skeletal Muscle Fascicle Arrangements

  • fusiform – thick in the middle and taper at the ends

  • parallel – muscle fibers are all parallel

  • pennate –fascicles are short and attach obliquely to a central tendon (feather shaped)

  • convergent – spread out as a fan or converge to a point

  • circular – muscle fibers arranged concentrically

Functional groups of muscles
Functional Groups of Muscles multipennate circular

  • prime mover or agonist –muscle whose contraction is responsible for a particular movement

  • synergists –muscles that assist the movement of the prime mover or agonist

  • antagonist –muscle whose action opposes that of the prime mover or agonist

  • fixators –stabilize the origin of the prime mover so it can move more efficiently.

    Origin - point of attachment where least movement occurs.

    Insertion – point of attachment with greatest movement.

Intrinsic and extrinsic muscles
Intrinsic and extrinsic muscles multipennate circular

  • Muscles are at times grouped as to the regions where they are found and function.

  • Intrinsic muscles are localized to a specific area (i.e. hand, tongue, back, etc.). They function and are contained only within that area.

  • Extrinsic muscles extend into other areas and are responsible for movements of areas other than where they are attached.

Terms to know and identify
Terms to know and identify multipennate circular

  • Sarcolemma - plasma membrane covering each muscle cell.

  • Sarcoplasm - muscle cell cytoplasm.

  • Thick filaments – contractile protein myosin molecules, shaped like a golf club head. Thin filaments slide over thick filaments

  • Thin filaments – contractile protein actin molecules

    (f and G actin) also contain the regulatory proteinstropomyosin and troponin.

  • Elastic filaments - titin (connectin) keep thick and thin filaments aligned over one another for proper contraction to occur; comprise the “Z” line.

Ultrastructure of skeletal muscle: multipennate circularsarcomere = distance between 2 “Z” lines.

Myofilaments multipennate circular

Muscle contraction
Muscle contraction multipennate circular

Every muscle contraction multipennate circular

is preceded by a nerve

impulse from the brain or

spinal cord. The impulse is

transmitted by a motorneuron

to each muscle fiber.

Neuromuscular control
Neuromuscular control multipennate circular

  • Skeletal muscle contraction is controlled by a nerve impulse (action potential) transmitted by the motor nerve from the brain or spinal cord.

  • A motor unit consists of all the muscle fibers controlled by a single motor neuron.

  • Fine control muscles (i.e. eyelid muscles) have fewer muscle fibers/ nerve.

  • A contraction is initiated by an action potential (nerve impulse) and followed by the release a chemical neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ).

  • Neurotransmitter for skeletal muscle is acetylcholine.

Neuromuscular control1
Neuromuscular control multipennate circular

  • Each muscle fiber is innervated by a single motor neuron

  • Contractions may be graded or full due to the number of muscle fibers that respond to the stimulus. The more fibers, the greater the muscle contraction

  • Synapse – functional connection between a nerve fiber and its target cell.

  • Neuromuscular junction – synapse between a motor nerve and a muscle fiber.

Neuromuscular junction
Neuromuscular junction multipennate circular

Neuromuscular junction1
Neuromuscular Junction multipennate circular

Synaptic knob, terminal or bouton – bulbous swelling at the end of a motor nerve above the motor end plate on the muscle fiber.

  • Synaptic cleft – gap between the synaptic knob and the motor end plate.

  • Synaptic vesicles – small packets of neurotransmitter chemical (e.g. acetylcholine, norepinephrine, etc.)

Sem of neuromuscular junction
SEM of Neuromuscular Junction multipennate circular

Skeletal muscle fibers
Skeletal muscle fibers multipennate circular

  • Skeletal muscle is composed of 3 different fiber types:

    • Fiber type is based on the process of making ATP and how fast they contract.

    • Type I slow oxidative fibers (dark staining)

    • Type IIa fast oxidative fibers (lighter staining)

    • Type IIx fast glycolytic fibers (pale or no staining)

Skeletal muscle fiber types
Skeletal muscle fiber types multipennate circular

Fiber type characteristics
Fiber type characteristics multipennate circular

  • Type I Slow oxidative:

    • Appear as thin, dark staining or red in color due to abundant myoglobin

    • Manufacture ATP by aerobic breakdown of glucose

    • Contract slowly and are resistant to fatigue.

    • Ex. back muscles and support muscles

  • Type IIa Fast oxidative:

    • Stain less darkly than Type I but slightly larger

    • Produce ATP via aerobic metabolism like Type I

    • Contract faster and more powerfully than Type I

    • Abundant in lower limbs contract for long periods

Fiber type characteristics1
Fiber type characteristics multipennate circular

  • Type IIx Fast glycolytic fibers

    • Stain a pale color contain due little myoglobin

    • Larger in diameter than other 2 types

    • Depend on anaerobic glycolysis to make ATP

    • Contract rapidly and fatigue easier

    • More prominent in upper limbs for large work loads

Skeletal muscle fiber types1
Skeletal muscle fiber types multipennate circular

Cardiac muscle
Cardiac muscle multipennate circular

Characterized by:

- cross-striations

- intercalated discs

- uni-nucleate cells


Cardiac muscle1
Cardiac Muscle multipennate circular

Smooth muscle
Smooth muscle multipennate circular

  • Characterized by:

    • Spindle shaped cells

    • Uni-nucleate cells

    • Involuntary control

    • Found in walls of hollow organs, blood vessels and glands