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Vulnerability Assessment: Foundations of Community- based Disaster Management. Session 1 World Bank Institute Krishna S. Vatsa. Community-based Disaster Risk Management. 1. 1. 1. 1. Conceptual Issues. Community-based Disaster Risk Management. 2. Risk, Hazard & Vulnerability.

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Vulnerability Assessment: Foundations of Community- based Disaster Management


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    1. Vulnerability Assessment: Foundations of Community- based Disaster Management Session 1World Bank InstituteKrishna S. Vatsa Community-based Disaster Risk Management Community-based Disaster Risk Management 1 1 1 1

    2. Conceptual Issues Community-based Disaster Risk Management Community-based Disaster Risk Management 2

    3. Risk, Hazard & Vulnerability Risk, hazard and vulnerability are related, but not synonymous Risk is the chance of a loss, or loss itself Vulnerability measures the resilience against a shock—the likelihood that a shock will result in a decline in well-being. Hazard refers to extreme natural events. It could be of varying intensity and severity, with known or unknown probability A disaster event is an interaction between an extreme natural event and a vulnerable human group Community-based Disaster Risk Management Community-based Disaster Risk Management 3

    4. What is Vulnerability Refers to negative outcomes of major ecological or economic shocks on the well-being of households or communities. Measured against a minimum level of welfare Embodies both the risk and capacity of householdsto respond to shocks It has two sides: external and internal External side refers to natural hazard and its characteristics (severity, frequency) Internal side refers to resilience: the community’s capacity to resist and recover from the adverse impact of a disaster Community-based Disaster Risk Management Community-based Disaster Risk Management 4

    5. Vulnerability in Disaster Management Vulnerability arises from shocks; physical hazard is therefore an essential dimension Vulnerability manifests in negative outcomes on well-being; so it includes human exposure to hazard It is different from poverty; non-poor are vulnerable too. Vulnerability can push the people into poverty. Vulnerability arises from certain factors: income, class, race, caste, gender, age (endemic factors) Vulnerability is reduced by access to resources and assets: financial and non-financial (ability to resist) Vulnerability a complex issue: difficult to develop common measures or indicators of vulnerability Community-based Disaster Risk Management Community-based Disaster Risk Management 5

    6. Vulnerable Groups Low-income groups: find it difficult to recover after disaster Women as a group are disproportionately affected by disasters Race / caste / ethnicity is closely related to their differential abilities for recovery Elderly people have limited coping strength In rural areas, vulnerable groups include smallholder agriculturalists, pastoralists, landless laborers, and the destitute In urban areas, these could come from unemployed destitute, underemployed poor people, and refugees Community-based Disaster Risk Management Community-based Disaster Risk Management 6

    7. Vulnerability Assessment Framework Community-based Disaster Risk Management Community-based Disaster Risk Management 7

    8. Hazard Assessment Nature, severity and frequency of the hazard Area and people likely to be affected Time and duration of the impact Prepared on the basis of a range of information: existing assessments and hazard maps, scientific data, and historical records A composite hazard map may be prepared at the community or regional level. Community-based Disaster Risk Management Community-based Disaster Risk Management 8

    9. Hazard Exposure Hazard exposure refers to a wide range of objects and activities, which are at risk. Risk to people’s lives and their health, their livelihood and economic activities, equipment, crops and livestock. Risk to peoples’ houses and their social facilities such as schools, hospitals, and religious institutions. Community-based Disaster Risk Management Community-based Disaster Risk Management 9

    10. Vulnerability Assessment (VA) • VA methods developed by organizations for their ownspecific needs with a focus on households and communities • Essentially a micro-level approach, though different approaches in developed and developing countries • VA could collect information through different sources: • Basic quantitative descriptive statistics; • Qualitative information on different vulnerable groups, including people’s perceptions of their own situations; • Descriptive statistics from spatial and geographical mappings of vulnerability indicators • Multivariate modeling of vulnerability with respect to outcome indicators such as consumption Community-based Disaster Risk Management Community-based Disaster Risk Management 10

    11. VA in Developed Countries VA in developed countries focuses on hazard and built environment Socio-economic variables (income-group/ race/ gender/ age) less important in VA VA under Project Impact (USA): Based on information about location and vulnerability of buildings, utilities, and transportation systems serving the community. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s VA (USA) includes societal analysis, but focuses on hazard identification, built environment and economic centers. Community-based Disaster Risk Management Community-based Disaster Risk Management 11

    12. VA in Developing Countries Famine Early Warning System (FEWS) Developed by USAID for sub-Saharan Africa: focus on food security World Food Program’s Vulnerability Analysis and Mapping (VAM) Capacities and Vulnerability Analysis (CVA) adopted by the International Red Cross VA methods inspired by Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA): participation of community members in risk assessment Community-based Disaster Risk Management Community-based Disaster Risk Management 12

    13. Reducing Vulnerability: Aspects of CBDRM Program Community-based Disaster Risk Management Community-based Disaster Risk Management 13

    14. Ability to Resist: Asset-building for Vulnerability Reduction Assets key to vulnerability reduction; necessary to buildasset profile of households and individuals Tangible and Non-tangible Assets: Land, livestock, tools, capital, and food reserves are tangible assets, while membership of social networks are intangible in nature Access to financial services for asset-building: credit, savings, and insurance Access to non-financial services for asset-building: social capital, trust, reciprocity as arising from membership of an organization/ social group Access profile (financial and non-financial services) determine Income / Livelihood Opportunities, Food Security, and Social Insurance Community-based Disaster Risk Management Community-based Disaster Risk Management 14

    15. Reducing Community’s Vulnerability: Requisite Conditions Social consciousness for disaster preparedness and mitigation Social organization: community / volunteer groups for disaster preparedness Access to Resources (Finance, Knowledge, Expertise) for the Community and Households Adaptive to innovations, while utilizing local knowledge, skills and traditional wisdom Institutional framework and accountability Community-based Disaster Risk Management Community-based Disaster Risk Management 15

    16. Community-based Disaster Management: Critical Elements Participation: Community members as active participants and decision-makers Inclusiveness: Involvement of the most vulnerable sectors and groups in the program Responsiveness: based on Community’s felt and urgent needs Integrated: pre-, during and post-disaster measuresare planned and implemented as necessary by the community Proactive: stress on pre-disaster measures of prevention, mitigation and preparedness Community-based Disaster Risk Management Community-based Disaster Risk Management 16

    17. Community-based Disaster Management: Main Features An incremental approach: starts with a small initiative and builds upon experiences, institutional support and resources available. Community-specific risk reduction measure Reliance on resilience and capacity of a community Synergies with development and poverty reduction: health, education, agriculture, and natural resource management Support and Facilitation by external actors: Government, NGOs, Experts, etc. Community-based Disaster Risk Management Community-based Disaster Risk Management 17

    18. Challenges of Community Preparedness Go beyond vulnerability analysis Engage the community Achieve balance between different components of the program Sustain community efforts Organize IEC Activities Community-based Disaster Risk Management Community-based Disaster Risk Management 18

    19. Constraints and Limitations Externally-driven; most of the programs stop after external funding ceases Outcomes not tangible Inadequate technical support Disconnect with development programs Overdependence upon the government In a divided community along race / caste / income groups, cohesion and social action are always problematic. Community-based Disaster Risk Management Community-based Disaster Risk Management 19