Elementary Science Science Focus Lesson Grade 5 Week 8
Week 8 – SC.H.1.2.2 Benchmark: The student knows that a successful method to explore the natural world is to observe and record and then analyze and communicate the results. Essential Question: How do scientists use the scientific method to help them explore the natural world? Vocabulary: Scientific Method Hypothesis Variable Constant Data Analyze Conclusion
Steps in the Scientific Process Observe the Natural World Ask Questions Purpose/ Hypothesis Design an Experiment (Materials List Variable/ Constant/Control) Procedure/Step by Step Instructions Analyzing Data/ Conclusion Communicate Results Collect/Record/Graph DATA
Asking Questions Not all questions are questions can be answered by the scientific method. For an experiment, we need to ask a question about things you can observe or test. An experiment is a scientific investigation that tests a hypothesis. A hypothesis is an idea that can be tested by an experiment or an observation. It is not a guess. A hypothesis is what you believe will happen based on your research and what you already know. Which would make a good scientific question that can be tested? 1. How is the height of a ramp related to the speed of a toy car? 3. How can you make a model of a volcano? NO!! YES!!!! 2. What is your favorite time of day? 4. How much height does a ball lose with each bounce? No!!!! Yes!!
Designing a Fair Test Suppose your class is going to have a race. We want to see who runs faster, the girls or the boys. Here’s the rules for the girls. Here’s the rules for the boys. Each girl will get to run 3 times and use her best time. Girls will wear special tennis shoes. Girls will run in the morning. Girls will run 100 yards. Boys can run only once. Boys must run barefoot. Boys will run in the afternoon. Boys will run 1000 yards. Would this be a fair test??? How would you make it a fair test?
Setting up a good experiment is like making fair rules for a game. To keep an experiment fair, you must try to control all the variables. A variable is something that can change, or vary, in an experiment. You want to only change the variable you are testing. This keeps the test fair. On the next slide, compare a fair race to a fair experiment.
Summarizing In your science notebook write the answer to the question below. How is designing an experiment like making rules for a game?
To make a good plan you will need to… • Make a list of materials you will need. You will also identify the variable, constant and control. • List each step you will take to complete your experiment. Make certain you are specific enough so someone else can replicate the experiment. • In your journal create a place to record and graph the data you collect.
Making Scientific Observations Once we have a good plan, now we are ready to make observations and collect data. Scientists use tools to make observations and collect data. Scientists are trained observers. What is a scientific observation? It is an observation that everyone agrees on. Using specific tools, along with your senses, we make observations. Talk to your shoulder partner…. Is the example below a “good” observation or a “poor” observation? Why? The plant is a weird shape with a lot of leaves. The color is pretty.
Using tools to make observations Tools help you make scientific observations beyond those you could make with just your senses. Talk to your shoulder partner… Let’s see what you know. Discuss several science tools and what they measure.
Data…Data…Data… • Graphing the data collected will sometimes make it easier to identify trends or patterns. • When you analyze data, you are trying to uncover patterns and trends in the data. • A conclusion explains the patterns you see in the data.Our conclusion will either support our hypothesis or not support it. Either way, we have learned important information.
Communicate the results An important part of the Scientific Method is sharing your results with others. One person’s discovery can lead to new discoveries by others. Scientists communicate their results by publishing them in scientific journals. Other scientists can replicate their experiments to confirm they get the same results. If many people get the same results, everyone can be pretty sure the results are correct. What are some ways you can share your results with others?
Ways to share your results… • You can give an oral report. • You can do a written report for others to read. • You can make a display of your results for other students and your parents. • You can post your report on a computer.
Summarizing In your Science notebook, explain why it is important for scientists to share information about their experiments.
Think, Pair, Share As a review from yesterday, discuss the scientific process. Explain why it is important to share the results.
Place these words in the order of the scientific process. Conclusion Communicate Result Observe Ask Questions Analyze Data Purpose/Hypothesis Procedure Design an Experiment Collect Data
1. Shelby wants to know what type of bird comes to the feeder outside her window most often. She observes the bird feeder for an hour at the same time each day. What else should she do to draw an accurate conclusion? A. write down how long each bird stays at the feeder B. put up two more bird feeders C. count and record the number and type of birds she sees D. measure the amount of seeds the birds eat
2. Danielle wants to investigate how high a ball bounces when it is dropped from different heights. What should she do first? create a hypothesis and write it down in a lab book determine what heights the ball will be dropped from record how high the ball bounces when dropped from different heights write in her lab book about possible sources of error in the experiment
Patrick is conducting an investigation to find out how the shape of a seed affects how fast it falls to the ground. Patrick has a question and formed a hypothesis. He has also designed an experiment to test his hypothesis. What should he do next? A. Communicate his findings B. Make observations C. Draw conclusions D. Analyze his data
Check your work… 1. C . count and record the number and type of birds she sees 2. A. create a hypothesis and write it down in a lab book 3. B. Make observations
Summarizing Answer the Essential Question for the lesson in your Science notebook. Essential Question: How do scientists use the scientific method to help them explore the natural world?
Check Your Understanding 1. Jamie did an experiment to find out whether cola, diet cola, or water would freeze quickest. She poured three equal amounts of each liquid into paper cups and put all the cups in the same freezer. Then she timed how long it took the liquid in each cup to freeze. What should Jamie do to analyze her data? A. find the average time it took each liquid to freeze B. look at her data and estimate the answer C. repeat the experiment two more times D. conduct another experiment with other liquids
2. Emma has done the experiment for her science fair project and has collected her data. What should she do next? A. change any of her data that is different from the rest B. analyze her data to draw a conclusion C. write a new hypothesis to agree with her data D. estimate some additional data to make her conclusion stronger
3. A researcher has completed several experiments to test a new medicine, and his conclusions show that he might have found a cure for a serious disease. What is the next thing the researcher should do? A. communicate his results to other scientists so they can repeat his experiments B. make sure no other researchers know about his results so he can become famous C. tell other scientists his experiments were not successful so they will do their own experiments D. refuse to share his data with anyone because they might not agree with him
4. A scientist wants to learn more about the behavior of pelicans in Florida. Which of the following would be the BEST way for the scientist to study pelican behavior? A. make a hypothesis, observe the pelicans in their Natural environment in Florida, and record behaviors that agree with the hypothesis B. read books about pelicans that live in many different states and draw conclusions from her reading C use the information she knows about pelicans to write down how she thinks pelicans should behave D. observe pelicans in their natural environment in Florida, record all behaviors she observes, and analyze her observations
Check Your Answers 1. A. find the average time it took each liquid to freeze 2. B. analyze her data to draw a conclusion 3. A. communicate his results to other scientists so they can repeat his experiments 4. D. observe pelicans in their natural environment in Florida, record all behaviors she observes, and analyze her observations
Summarizing Write in your Science Notebook… 3questions you could plan an experiment around 2examples of a “good” observation 1 way you can share results from an experiment