Elementary Science Science Focus Lesson SC.5.E.5.3 Solar System Polk County Public Schools
SC.5.E.5.3 Benchmark: Distinguish among the following objects of the Solar System – Sun, planets, moons, asteroids, comets – and identify Earth’s position in it. Essential Question: Describe the planets, moons, asteroids, comets and identify Earth’s position in it. Vocabulary: Planet Comet Moon Asteroid
Solar System • Our solar system includes the sun, planets and their moons, comets, and asteroids. • The Sun is the center of our solar system. • Everything in the solar system revolves around the sun. Everything is kept in orbit by the pull of the sun’s gravity.
Planets • Planets have mass, rotate on an axis and revolve around the sun in a flattened circle called an ellipse. The planets are much smaller than the sun. • Inner planets are much smaller than the outer planets. • The inner planets are mostly solid and the outer planets are mostly gas.
Moons • Moons are natural objects that orbit a planet. • The inner planets have very few or no moons • The outer planets have multiple moons. • Earth’s Moon • Earth’s moon rotates on its axis and revolves around Earth. • One moon rotation and one moon revolution take the same amount of time, about 28 days. Because of this we can only see one side of the moon from Earth. • Because of the way that the sun shines on Earth’s moon it appears to have different phases
Comets and Asteroids • Comets are mountain size chunks of ice and dust that orbit the sun. They streak towards the sun from beyond Pluto and then back into outer space. Some comets orbit the sun again and again. Others crash into the sun or only make one trip around the sun and never return. • Asteroids are small and large rocks in space that orbit the Sun. Most asteroids can be found in a large space between the orbit of Mars and Jupiter. This is call the asteroid belt.
Summarizing • Partner A – identify the items in our solar system • Partner B – Describe three things that all planets have in common . • Partner C – Describe a comet • Partner D – Describe an asteroid
Order and Description of the Planets Mercury (inner planet) • Mercury is the closest planet to the sun. • Surface is rocky • Almost no atmosphere • Diameter 4,878 km • 0 moons • Temperature-180OC at night to 450 OC during the day (HOT) • Length of Mercury’s year (orbit) is 88 Earth days. Venus (inner planet) • Venus is the 2nd planet from the sun. • Surface is rocky • Very thick atmosphere made mostly of carbon dioxide • Diameter 12,104 km • 0 moons • Temperature on the surface is about 470 OC (HOT) • Length of Venus’s year (orbit) is 225 Earth days.
Order and Description of the Planets (cont.) Earth (inner planet) • Earth is the 3rd planet from the sun. • Surface is rocky; 70% is covered by water • Atmosphere consists of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% other gases • Diameter 12,756 km • 1 moon • Length of Earth’s year is 365.25 Earth days. Mars (inner planet) • Mars is the 4th planet from the sun. • Surface is rocky with mountains and canyons. • Thin atmosphere made mostly of carbon dioxide • Diameter 6,786 km • 2 moons • Temperature on the surface is about 20 OC to -123OC (WARM and COLD) • Length of Mar’s year is 687 Earth days.
Order and Description of the Planets (cont.) Jupiter (outer planet) • Jupiter is the 5th planet to the sun. • Surface is liquid hydrogen gas • Atmosphere of very thick hydrogen gas. • Diameter 142,984 km; Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system. • 38 moons • Temperatures fall to about -160OC (VERY COLD) • Length of Jupiter’s year(orbit) is 11.86 Earth years. • Jupiter has a storm in its atmosphere called the “Great Red Spot”. Saturn (outer planet) • Saturn is the 6th planet from the sun. • Surface is entirely gas, its surface IS its atmosphere! • Thin atmosphere made mostly of hydrogen and helium • Diameter 120,536 km; it is the second largest planet of the solar system. • 30 moons • Temperature on the surface is about -190OC (VERY COLD) • Length of Saturn’s year is(orbit) 29.46 Earth years.
Order and Description of the Planets (cont.) Uranus (outer planet) • Uranus is the 7th planet to the sun. • Surface is thought to be mostly gaseous • Atmosphere of very thick hydrogen, helium, & methane gas. • Diameter 51,108 km • 24 moons • Temperatures are as low as -220OC (VERY COLD) • Length of Uranus’ year (obit) is 84 Earth years. Neptune (outer planet) • Neptune is the 8th planet from the sun. • Surface is made of gaseous elements • Thick atmosphere made of hydrogen, helium, &methane gases • Diameter 49,538 km • 8 moons • Temperature on the surface is the coldest at a little below -220OC (VERY COLD) • Length of Neptune’s year (orbit) is 165 Earth years.
Summarizing Create a Venn Diagram comparing and contrasting the characteristics of the inner and outer planets. Outer planets Inner planets
Guided Practice Talk to your shoulder partner about the answer to each question. Check your work. • A star named Sirius appears as the brightest star in the nighttime sky, even though a star named Pollux actually gives off more light. Which of the following best explains why Sirius appears brighter than Pollux in our nighttime sky? • Sirius has a different color than Pollux does. • Sirius has different gases than Pollux does. • Sirius is closer to Earth than Pollux is. • Sirius is larger than Pollux is.
C The answer is Stars that are closer appear to be brighter. Pollux Sirius
Guided Practice 2. What is the shape of the orbit of a planet around the sun? elliptical circular Semi-circular identical
A The answer is The planets travel in an elliptical path around the sun. An ellipse is described as a flattened circle that is longer than it is wide.
Guided Practice • 3. Jacob started creating a diagram to show some of the common characteristics of the planets in our solar system. Which characteristic should Jacob write in the empty circle of the diagram? • made mostly of gas • has a rocky surface • revolves around a star • is a satellite of another planet
C The answer is Planets revolve around a star. The length of time that one revolution takes is called a year. Our planet, Earth, revolves around our star, The Sun, in approximately 365 days.
Guided Practice • 4. Keisha wants to show Amy what happens during one Earth day. Keisha holds a small globe representing Earth, and Amy holds a large ball representing the Sun. What should Keisha do to show Amy what happens during one Earth day? • Keisha should move the globe in one complete circle around Amy. • Keisha should move the globe toward Amy and then away from her. • Keisha should slowly lift the globe above her head and then lower it. • Keisha should slowly spin the globe one complete time about its axis.
D The answer is Planets rotate on their axis. The length of time it takes for a planet to rotate is called a day. The Earth takes approximately 24 hours to rotate on its axis, this is the length of one Earth day.
Summarizing Pass a piece of paper around the table. Each group member adds a detail that answers the question. Keep the paper moving until time is called- see how many ideas your group can generate! Essential Question: Describe the planets, moons, asteroids, comets and identify Earth’s position related to them.
Check Your Understanding 1. Which of the following happens because of a combination of Earth’s rotation and the moon’s revolution around • seasons • day and night • changes in the appearance of the moon • climate changes
Check Your Understanding 2. Life on Earth is possible because of the Sun. The Sun provides energy for all living things to grow. Plants need the Sun to make their own food. The water cycle would not be possible without the Sun. Which statement best describes the Sun? • The Sun is a large planet that provides heat and light to Earth. • The Sun is the largest star in the universe and provides heat and light to Earth. • The Sun is a comet that provides heat and light to Earth. • The Sun is a medium-sized star that provides heat and light to Earth.
Check Your Understanding 3. Constellations are patterns of stars in the sky. Which statement best describes these stars? • The stars in a constellation are equal distances from Earth. • The stars in a constellation are the same size. • The stars in a constellation pattern never move. • The stars in a constellation are different distances from Earth.
Check Your Understanding 4. Why does the Sun seem larger and brighter than other stars? • The Sun can be seen from Earth during daylight hours. • The Sun is closer to Earth than other stars in the universe. • The Sun reflects light from all the moons in the solar system. • The Sun can make its own light.
Check Your Answers • c • d • d • b
Summary Question In your science journal Compare and Contrast what you know about the Earth with the inner and outer planets, moons, asteroids and comets.