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20-771: Computer Security Lecture 1: Introduction PowerPoint Presentation
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20-771: Computer Security Lecture 1: Introduction

20-771: Computer Security Lecture 1: Introduction

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20-771: Computer Security Lecture 1: Introduction

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  1. 20-771: Computer SecurityLecture 1: Introduction Robert Thibadeau School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Institute for eCommerce, Fall 2000

  2. Today’s lecture • Class Details • Basics of Computer Security • Break (10 min) • Overview

  3. This Week Chapters Homework Quiz

  4. Computer Security • Security against Threat • Threat: a use other than intended • Source of Intention • Owner/Author • Target of Intention • Machine, Software, Data, Facility • Nature of Intention • Almost never clear • 100% Uptime • Only Owner/Author can Modify • Owner/Author can say Who can Modify What • Privacy is just a special case of data about you that you author.

  5. What do we secure? • Securing the Server • Web Server • Mail Server • Disk Contents • Securing the Client • Browser • Disk Contents • Securing the Network • Physical Wire • All the Routers/Gateways • Securing the Data Objects • Tamperproofing • Authenticating • Authorizing Access • What else?

  6. How do we manage the security? • Management of many Programs • Management of lots of Data • Management of many Machines • Management of many People • Management of many Contracts • The Law

  7. How do we evaluate Security? • Security is Never Absolute! • Insiders possible • People who can make the box can break the box • No exceptions! (even cryptography…a cryptographer knows the weak point and can take pictures of you with his girlfriend). • Here’s your screwdriver! • Security is always MORE or LESS • Weigh the Incentive to violate your security • If the incentive is there, the bad guy is thinking • If Incentive is very high, then Security must be very high • THE BIGGEST SECURITY MISTAKE PEOPLE MAKE IS PRESUPPOSING SECURITY IS ABSOLUTE • You forget to monitor your weak points.

  8. Purpose of Course • Become IntelligentlyParanoid • Paranoid • The bad guys are indeed there (especially at CMU!) • The bad guys are stealing from you invisibly • Rarely do the bad guys let you know (they are parasites not troopers!) • A CMU we just want free interchange of knowledge all around : don’t steal, give and take…it’s better! • In a Company you can’t have that but you need some. • Intelligent • Know what they can do if they want to • Know what they can’t do even if they want to • Know what you can do about it • There is a system! (and here it is…)

  9. Security Layers Whole Facility / Internet Security Client Applications Server Applications Security Assurance Applications Security Server Applications Proxy/Router Applications Client Security Server Security Path Security Proxy/Router Security Host Security

  10. Our Class Client Applications Server Applications Web Client Security Web Server Security Security Assurance Applications Security Server Applications Proxy/Router Applications Client Security Server Security Path Security Proxy/Router Security Host Security Whole Facility / Internet Security Web Security (WS) by Lincoln Stein Oldie but goodie

  11. Our Class Client Applications Server Applications Web Client Security Web Server Security Security Assurance Applications Security Server Applications WINDOWS 2000 Proxy/Router Applications Client Security Server Security Path Security Proxy/Router Security Host Security Whole Facility / Internet Security Windows 2000 Server Security by Shinder Spotty but useful

  12. Whole Facility/Internet Security • Enforcing Protocols • Killer Packets • www.cert.orgwww.first.org • Enforcing Policy • Where Technology Ends and the Law Begins • Facility Policy • Security Architecture • Protocols Allowed and Disallowed • Rights and Obligations • Password Policy • Providing Publicity (Story ‘bout LANL) • Training and Education • Reporting

  13. Our Class Client Applications Server Applications Web Client Security Web Server Security Security Assurance Applications Security Server Applications WINDOWS 2000 Proxy/Router Applications Client Security Server Security Path Security Proxy/Router Security Host Security Whole Facility / Internet Security – Protocols/Policy/Publicity

  14. Path Security • Electricity can be read • I can tap any copper line and you won’t know. • Electromagnetics can be read • Radio – Frequency Hopping • Microwave – Straight Line but can put tap in middle • Terminal – Read screens through windows • A modern screen is in fact a serial device • Defeat : block view of light from screens • Tapping optics (harder electromagnetics) • Laser – Straight Line but smaller – catch scatter • Repeater (introduces detectable delay) • Denial of Service (A shovel or Thunder Storm) • Nearly every path device has a specification that completely delimits the security considerations

  15. Proxy/Router Security • Special Case of Server Security • Physical Protection is critical • Can be made very tough by putting all code in hardware. • You can’t change the code at all. • Need less physical protection. • This is just a special case of gaining security by creating a special purpose server. • Linux is great for this.

  16. Our Class Client Applications Server Applications Web Client Security Web Server Security Security Assurance Applications Security Server Applications WINDOWS 2000 Proxy/Router Applications – Put in Hardware! (buy CISCO) Client Security Server Security Path Security - Physical security Proxy/Router Security - Kind of Server Host Security Whole Facility / Internet Security – Protocols/Policy/Publicity Technology The Law How To Cryptography

  17. Break!

  18. Our Class Client Applications Server Applications Web Client Security Web Server Security Security Assurance Applications Security Server Applications WINDOWS 2000 Proxy/Router Applications – Put in Hardware! (buy CISCO) Client Security Server Security Path Security - Physical security Proxy/Router Security - Kind of Server Host Security Whole Facility / Internet Security – Protocols/Policy/Publicity Technology The Law How To Cryptography

  19. The How-Toof Computer Security • Integrity – Is it what it represents itself to be? • Privacy – Is it hidden from those without a right to see it? • Authentication – Is it from who it pretends to be from? • Authorization – Is it provided to who it is supposed to be provided to? • Auditability – Do I have a record of how it was used? It: the service or the total data, program, machine, facility, network that is secure – whose intention is being protected.

  20. IPAAA Solutions • Integrity, Privacy, Authentication, Authorization, and Audibility are NOT SOLVED PROBLEMS in general!!! • We don’t know how to fully represent intention • We don’t know how to enforce these without loss of human productivity • Loss by user • Loss by administrator • Today’s solutions are very imperfect but work OK (the horse gets us across town…maybe we just need powerful enough engines to fly). • Cryptography has provided technical “solutions” to all the problems

  21. Where Cryptography Succeeds and Fails • Succeeds • If all the assumptions hold, it really works well. Try as you might, you can’t beat the system. • It has several good alternative solutions to every problem. • This is all very good for ecommerce. • Fails • It makes assumptions that are not necessarily valid and are hard to prove • Password guessing just uses “crypt” to create the un-reversible cypher – you never really have to “decrypt” • somebody says they are Microsoft and another group says they are Microsoft Corporation… who do you believe is the real Microsoft? • Usability is REALLY BAD!!!!!! • Buy lots of special hardware • People are constantly frustrated – Huge Untold Productivity Losses “a constant state of huppliness” • This is all very bad for general ecommerce • I forgot that password! • Lots of “dot com” business opportunity

  22. Web Security from a Perspective • User Perspective • Is the site who it pretends to be? • Is the document returned correct and free from malicious Viruses? • Is my personal privacy protected? • Webmaster Perspective • User can’t break into my site? • User can only see what he is authorized to see? • User can’t crash my server? • User is who he claims to be? • Both • The network isn’t being sniffed • The data between the browser and server is not tampered

  23. Windows 2000 Server SecurityMS Selections from the Catalog of Cryptography! • User/File/Program Access Control • Adoption of Kerberos v5 Authentication Standard • Implementation of Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) • File Encryption • IPSec – Cryptography for IP • Security Management Snap-Ins for System Management across Facility

  24. Our Class Client Applications Server Applications Web Client Security Web Server Security Security Assurance Applications Security Server Applications WINDOWS 2000 Proxy/Router Applications – Put in Hardware! (buy CISCO) Client Security Server Security Path Security - Physical security Proxy/Router Security - Kind of Server Host Security Whole Facility / Internet Security – Protocols/Policy/Publicity Technology The Law How To Integrity/Privacy/Authenticate/Authorize/Record Cryptography

  25. Thursday • Read Chapters 1 & 2 of WS • Read About PGP Hack • If you have it, Read Chapter 10 of W2000 (not on test except as covered today) • Quiz

  26. Questions • List the Five Elements of Computer Security. • What is Authentication? • What is Authorization? • What is Privacy? • What is Auditability? • What is Integrity? • On the web, what does the webmaster worry about regarding security?