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CMPS 101 Computer Literacy

CMPS 101 Computer Literacy

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CMPS 101 Computer Literacy

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  1. CMPS 101 Computer Literacy Dr. Cong-Cong Xing Dept of Math and Computer Science

  2. Part I Introduction to Computers and MS Windows

  3. Introduction to Computer Software and Hardware

  4. What is a computer? • This is it! • Or…?

  5. What is a computer? • An electronic device that can manipulate data. • (ok) • A programmable electronic device that can store, retrieve, and process data. • (good) • An electronic device which, under programmers’ direction and control, performs input/output, processing, and storage. • (better)

  6. What is a (computer) program? • A list of instructions telling computers what to do. (ok) • An implementation of an algorithm (what?)in a programming language. (good) • Examples? • MS Word • MS Excel • Firefox • <your own>

  7. What is an algorithm? • A precise, step-by-step procedure designed to solve certain kind of problems. • examples • Sort the following sets of numbers {2, 3, 1, 45, 23, 67, 23, 21, 6} {2, 3, 56, 444, 33, 666, 777,66,5, 390, 34, 34, 56, 66, 55, 78, 34, 232, 342, 446, ……}

  8. Hardware Components of a Computer CPU Output devices Input devices Storage devices John von Neumann architecture (important diagram)

  9. A more detailed diagram CPU

  10. All computers(PCs, mainframes, supercomputers, ….) are built according to this diagram/principle • Developed by John von Neumann

  11. The old computer: ENIAC (the first electronic computer, 1940s)

  12. The new computer: HP 2133 Mini-Note 1 GHz - 8.9 " - 512 MB Ram - 4 GB HDD

  13. Cont’d • Input devices • Input data into computers • E.g. keyboard, mouse • <your own example>

  14. Output devices • Output data out of computers • E.g. monitor, printer • <your own example>

  15. CPU (Central Processing Unit, also called processor) • The defining-component of a computer • Two main CPU manufacturers: Intel and AMD • http://www.amd.com/us-en/ • http://www.intel.com/

  16. Storage devices (two types) 2nd type 1st type

  17. Cont’d • Storage Devices • RAM (Random Access Memory) • This is the primary type, main type, 1st type memory • Hard disk, floppy disk • optical disk (CDs, DVDs) • jump drive, flash memory • (Note: in most cases in the literature, the word “memory” means RAM) They are the 2nd type memory

  18. RAM (memory) Desktop laptop

  19. Hard disk (HD) (most people call it hard drive) • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9eMWG3fwiEU

  20. Source: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9eMWG3fwiEU

  21. Jump drive (USB drive)

  22. Flash memory (flash card)

  23. CD/DVD/Blu-ray Disc

  24. Difference between the 1st type storage device (i.e. memory) and the 2nd type storage devices • Memory stores info temporarily • All 2nd storage devices store info permanently • Question: how come….

  25. KB, MB, GB, Hz,…. • 1 bit = 1 or 0 • 1 byte = 8 bits • 1 K (kilo) = 1000 (roughly) • 1 M (mega) = 1000K (roughly) • 1 G (giga) = 1000M (roughly) • So, 2 GB = 2 x 1000 x 1000 x 1000 bytes 200 MB = 200 x 1000 x 1000 bytes • 1 Hz = number of operations per second

  26. Can you understand the spec? Gateway M-7351u Laptop Computer - Intel Pentium Dual-Core T4200 2.0GHz, 4GB DDR2 RAM, 320GB HDD, DVDRW, 15.4" WXGA, Vista Home Premium 64-bit

  27. Computer Science Areas (partial list) • Operating systems • Windows XP, Mac OS, Unix, Linux • Database management systems • Oracle • Algorithms • sorting • Software engineering • How to program “better” • Programming languages • Java, C++ • Theory • Math foundations • Architecture • Hardware • Artificial intelligence • Chess, robot

  28. Unix-like Operating Systems

  29. Database Management System Find all incidents for overlay

  30. Algorithm • Sort the following sets of numbers into ascending order {2, 3, 1, 45, 23, 67, 23, 21, 6} {2, 3, 56, 444, 33, 666, 777,66,5, 390, 34, 34, 56, 66, 55, 78, 34, 232, 342, 446, ……}

  31. Software Engineering

  32. Programming Languages • public class Lab2 • { • public static void main(String args[]) • { • // declaration of variables • double a; // first number, input • double b; // second number, input • double c; // the sum of 1st and 2nd number, output • String astr; // string for a • String bstr; // string for b • // read in the 1st number • astr = JOptionPane.showInputDialog("Enter the 1st number"); • a = Double.parseDouble(astr); • // echo • System.out.println("You have entered "+a); • // read in the 2nd number • bstr = JOptionPane.showInputDialog("Enter the 2nd number");

  33. Computing Theory • Domain theory • Category theory • Computability theory • Lambda calculus • Pi-calculus • Object-calculus • ……. • Turing Machine *(Alan Turing) (Computer Science Turing Award)

  34. Architecture

  35. Artificial Intelligence • robot

  36. Elements of a Computing Process • Hardware • Software • Data • Users • Procedures Hw & sw data data procedure users

  37. Review • What is a computer? • What is a computer program? • What is a programming language?? • Give an example of programming languages • What are the 4 components of a computer system? • What does “Pentium 4 3.0 Ghz” mean? • Are hard drive and memory the same thing? Why? • Give an example of computer science research areas • Give two examples of operating systems

  38. Processing and Memory • Processing • Data representation • Sequence of 0’s and 1’s • ASCII (American Standard Code for Info Interchange) (e.g. A -> 65) • http://www.neurophys.wisc.edu/www/comp/docs/ascii.html • http://www.cplusplus.com/doc/papers/ascii.html

  39. Cont’d • CPU • Control unit (CU): sets the order of tasks • ALU (arithmetic-logic unit): carry out computation CU & ALU write fetch RAM

  40. Cont’d • Compatibility: • different CPUs have different instruction sets • Data bus: • Connects CPU and RAM and peripherals • Bus width measured by bits • Address bus: • Connects CPU and RAM • Width of address bus determines the max # of RAM locations. (why?) • CISC vs. RISC • CISC (complex instruction set computer), expensive, complex, high speed.

  41. Cont’d • RISC (reduced instruction set computer), inexpensive, simple, satisfactory speed • Typical CPU chips • Pentium, • AMD • Power PC series • Alpha series • Memory • RAM (Random-access Memory): • the main memory of computers • Cache Memory: • faster, more expensive • ROM (Read-Only Memory): • Stores system info, not writable

  42. Cont’d • Motherboard • The baseboard housing every hardware component (except I/O) for computation.

  43. How Computers Store Data • Storage Media • All storage materials described here are non-volatile (RAM is volatile). • Magnetic tape • Hold large amount of data • Inexpensive • Slow access • Sequential access • Backup

  44. Cont’d • Magnetic disk: random access, read/write head. • Floppy disk, 1.44 mb (obsolete) • Hard disk • Faster • Holds large amount of data • Pack of disks • Sealed and encased

  45. Optical disc: holds huge amount of data • CD-ROM • CD-R (Recordable) • CD-RW (Rewritable) • DVD (Digital Video Disk) • DVD-ROM • DVD-R • DVD+R • DVD-RW • DVD+RW

  46. Storing Data in Files • File: a collection of data stored as an individual entity. • Types of files: • Program file – executable, e.g., MS Word. In Windows, an executable file typically has .exe extension. • Data file – data used by programs, e.g., text files, graphics • Naming files name extension

  47. Program file Data files

  48. Naming files • Ex: • ReadMe.txt • Lab1.docx • Lab2.xlsx • Me.jpg • Car.gif • Player.exe • What if I rename “Me.jpg” to Me.txt”? extension name

  49. Directory (also known as Folder) • A group of files (and/or subdirectories) organized in a tree-shape sp05 eng101 cs101 hw1 hw1 hw3 hw2

  50. “tree” structure displayed in Windows