Outdoor and Environmental Studies UNIT 3 MELTON SECONDARY COLLEGE UNIT 3 REVISION 2012
Exam Format • Duration- 2 Hours • Worth 50% of overall marks for Outdoor and Environment Studies. Other 50% to come from SAC scores.
Unit 3- Relationships with the Outdoors • The focus of this unit is the ecological, historical and social contexts of relationships between humans and outdoor environments in Australia. Case studies of impacts on outdoor environments are examined in the context of the changing nature of human relationships with outdoor environments in Australia.
Outcome 1 • On completion of this unit the student should be able to explain and evaluate how relationships with Australian outdoor environments have changed over time, with reference to specific outdoor experiences.
Key Knowledge • An overview of Australian outdoor environments before humans, including characteristics of biological isolation, geological stability, and climatic variations • Relationships with Australian outdoor environments expressed by specific Indigenous communities before and after European colonisation • Relationships with Australian outdoor environments as influenced by: • The first non-Indigenous settlers’ experiences • Increasing population – industrialisation • Nation building
Key Knowledge Continued… • The foundation and role of environmental movements in changing relationships with outdoor environments, in relation to at least one of the following: • The Wilderness Society • Australian Conservation Foundation • Victorian National Parks Association • Greenpeace • Gould League.
Key knowledge • An Overview of Australian Outdoor Environments before Humans, Including characteristics of Biological Isolation, Geological Stability and Climatic Variations.
Biological isolation • Limited transfer of animals and plants between countries/land mass due to isolation from the ocean or distance. • Therefore species evolve without other intervention. • Introducing species- • Aboriginals- introduced Dingos and eliminated Mega Fauna changing the landscape (Excessive hunting). • Europeans- made a larger impact by introducing a range of things to make Australia feel more like Europe. For E.g. Patterson’s Curse, Rabbits, Kane Toads etc. • They also prevented fire stick farming and the nomadic existence of the aboriginals.
Geological stability • Describes how stable a country is in relation to level of movement in Techtronic Plates. • Australia is an example of a stable country, as it is not close to the meeting of two plates. Majority of the country’s landscape is flat. • Due to limited amount of movement our soil quality is lower than other countries closer to the ends of the Tectonic Plates. • In comparison New Zealand sits directly over Plates resulting in movement and a Mountainous landscape. • New Zealand Earth Quake 2011 an active Plate it is more likely to experience Earthquakes due to the plates slipping.
Climatic variations • Changing in weather patterns. • Shapes and effects Flora and Fauna in different areas of the planet. • Recent increase in extreme weather can be attributed to climate change.
Key knowledge • Relationships with Australian Outdoor Environments expressed by specific Indigenous communities before and after European Colonization.
Relationships before colonisation • Indigenous People- • Respect of the land • Living with the land • Spiritual connection with the land • Able to carry out normal way of life- nomadic movement. • Cultivated land and focus on sustainability. • Practiced Fire stick farming and did not overhunt areas.
Relationships After colonisation • European Relationships • Europeans believed Australia to be Terra Nullius. • Tricked Aboriginals into signing over land. • Aboriginal life changed significantly due to reduction of space to carry out every day life as a nomad.
Specific indigenous community • Wurundjeri People • The first people that occupied the Melbourne area prior to European colonisation were the Woiwurrung language group, specifically the Wurundjeri people.. • Places of Significance • The Wurundjeri are the traditional owners of a large part of the land of inner and outer Melbourne. • The Yarra River was central to the Wurundjeri people as it provided a variety of foods such as eels and fish. Along its fertile banks the numerous variety of native animals and plants would be found.
Specific indigenous community Continued… • There are a number of identified significant sites, in particular those found near the Yarra & Maribyrnong Rivers and the Merri Creek. A place of great gathering occurred at the Bolin Bolin Billabong in Bulleen where sacred and social interaction between the clans would take place. The Wurundjeri would also gather with other members of the Kulin Nation on the land where the Melbourne Cricket Ground (MGC) now stands. Other places of significance for the Wurundjeri people are: • Coranderrk Mission Station (Healesville) • Pound Bend (Templestowe / Doncaster) • Mt William Aboriginal Stone Axe Quarry • Dights Falls area (Collingwood) • Heide Scarred Tree (Templestowe) • The Sunbury Rings (Sunbury)
Key knowledge • Relationships with Australian Outdoor Environments as influence by- • The First Non-Indigenous Settlers Experience • Increasing Population • Industralisation • Nation Building
Key Skills • Describe the characteristics of the Australian environment before humans. • Describe and analyse the changing relationships with Australian outdoor environments expressed by specific Indigenous communities. • Describe and analyse the changing relationships with Australian outdoor environments influenced by historical events and associated key social and cultural issues.
Key Skills Continued… • Evaluate the role of a specific environmental movement in changing relationships with outdoor environments. • Plan for and reflect upon a range of practical sustainable outdoor experiences and analyse relevant information collected during these experiences. • Evaluate changing relationships in relation to a particular outdoor environment visited.
First Non Indigenous Settlers experience • Found the land Terra Nullius. • Initial view of the land- hard, barren, seasons at the wrong time, hot and not England. • Acquired land and viewed Australia as a opportunity to make money. • No thoughts to sustainability. • Introduced Plants and Animals to make more like England.
Increasing Population • Gold Rush • Damage due to mining • Technology increasing without thought to the environment. • Effects to the Australian Environment due to increase in immigration. • More people more facilities.
Industralisation • Increasing technology- increased efficiency in every day life as well as the consequences for the environment. • Infrastructure improved- roads, railways etc. • The need to feed, house, employ and provide energy and other services to a growing population. • Development and Exports dominated the relationship with the land.
Nation Building • The return of solders from WW1 and WW2 provided opportunity and challenges. • Increase in the Infrastructure developments. • Returning Vets and immigration provided a workforce to help in the construction of dams, roads, farms and large scale energy projects. All of which had large implications for the Australian environments.
Key knowledge • The foundation and role of environmental movements in changing relationships with outdoor environments, in relation to at least one of the following- • The Wilderness Society • Australian Conservation Society • Victorian National parks Association • Greenpeace • Gould League
Environmental Movements • Need to research and know one in detail. • Australians during the early 70s started to change their view of the use of Australian resources. • Sustainability is now starting to be considered. • Today the battle between $ and sustainability continues. • Youtube examples
Outcome 2 • Contemporary relationships with outdoor environments • In this area of study students examine current relationships between humans and outdoor environments. They examine a number of ways outdoor environments are portrayed in different media; the dynamic nature of relationships between humans and their environment; and the social, cultural, economic and political factors that influence these relationships.
Key Knowledge • Contemporary societal relationships with outdoor environments reflected in different forms of conservation, recreation, primary industries, and tourism practices. • The factors influencing contemporary societal relationships with outdoor environments, including: • The effects of different technologies
Key Knowledge Continued… • Commercialisation of outdoor environments and outdoor experiences. • Portrayals of outdoor environments and outdoor experiences in the media, music, art, writing and advertising. • Social responses to risk taking. • Social and political discourses about climate change, water management, biosecurity and other contemporary environmental issues.
Key Skills • Plan for and reflect upon a range of practical sustainable outdoor experiences and analyse relevant information collected during these experiences. • Compare and contrast different contemporary societal relationships with outdoor environments. • Analyseand evaluate factors influencing contemporary societal relationships with outdoor environments. • Analysecontemporary social and political discourses about environmental issues.
Organ PipesExcursion • Organ Pipes is a National Park which has been protected and preserved for future generations. • Features of the Park- • Jacksons Creek - Water source for initial land users. • Protects Flora and Fauna • Tourism Practices • Problems the park is facing- • Introduced Species • Troubles re-introducing native species
Brisbane Ranges Excursion Continued… • Changes over time- • Natural areas have reduced over time. • Recent rehabilitation program • Approach of the urban sprawl • Initial hot spot for Geologists • Now =Bushwalking and recreation • Reasons why we went to the excursion- • Discover Human Impacts- History • Aboriginal Heritage • See effects of geological stability/instability
Grampians Excursion • The Grampians National Park (also Gariwerd) is a National Park in Victoria, Australia, 235 Kilometers west of Melbourne. • Features of the Park- • Large areas of Wilderness. • Many walking trails for recreational users • Large camping grounds catering for many groups. • Native wildlife and plant species. • Brambuk cultural centre • Problems the park is facing- • Pollution • Human effects • Past Mining at Heathlea Quarry
Grampians Excursion Continued… • Changes over time- • Large amounts of indigenous heritage • Relatively untouched until Industralisation brought quarrying. • Walking tracks marked out for recreational users. • Commercialisation of activities • Declared a National Park to restrict deforestation and quarrying • Reasons why we went to the excursion- • To see effects of Commercialisationand Tourism. • Enjoy the area as a recreation and study site.
Key Knowledge • Contemporary societal relationships with outdoor environments reflected in different forms of conservation, recreation, primary industries, and tourism practices.
Different Forms of Conservation • Key Terms • Contemporary Relationships- Refers to events and interactions that have occurred within the last 10 to 15 yrs. • Conservation- The protection and enhancement of the environment.
Different Forms of Conservation • Definition of Conservation:The protection and enhancement of the environment. • Conservation - Examples: • Environmental groups • The Wilderness Society • Australian Conservation Society • Victorian National Parks Association • Greenpeace • Gould League
Different Forms of Conservation • National Parks • Australia has over 500 national parks. Over 28 million hectares of land is designated as national parkland, accounting for almost four per cent of Australia's land areas. In addition, a further six per cent of Australia is protected and includes state forests, nature parks and conservation reserves. • National parks are usually large areas of land that are protected because they have unspoilt landscapes and a diverse number of native plants and animals. This means that commercial activities such as farming are prohibited and human activity is strictly monitored. They are also areas that protect significant historical and Aboriginal cultural areas. • Australia's first national park, was proclaimed on 26 April 1879, south of Sydney in New South Wales. It is now known as the Royal National Park. It was the second such park to be declared in the world, the first being Yellowstone National Park in the United States of America.
Different Forms of Conservation • National Parks Continued… • State Parks- provide a natural setting for recreational activities. • State Forests- exist to provide a sustainable flow of timber supples. • Example of a close National parks- Great Otways National Park and Brisbane Ranges National Park. • State Parks- Lerderderg State park and Werribee Gorge.
Different Forms of Conservation • Management strategies • Natural resource management refers to the management of natural resources such as land, water, soil, plants and animals, with a particular focus on how management affects the quality of life for both present and future generations. • It brings together land use planning, water management, biodiversity conservation, and the future sustainability of industries like agriculture, mining and tourism, fisheries and forestry.
Different Forms of Conservation • Management Strategies continued… • It recognizes that people and their livelihoods rely on the health and the productivity of our landscapes, and their actions as stewards of the land play a critical role in maintaining this health and productivity. • Examples of land management- • DSE- Department of Sustainability- Minimizing the impacts of pest plants and animals, protecting and enhancing native vegetation, ameliorating and mitigating the impacts of dryland salinity and other forms of land degradation, and supporting Landcare and community capacity and participation.
Different Forms of Conservation • Minimal impact strategies- • Strategies and policies for different environments- parks- both land and sea. • Include- simple as “Pack in Pack Out” to National/State Parks and Marine Sanctuaries.
Different Forms of Conservation • Reduction in use of resources- • Moving away from polluting practices, such as; coal and petrol to produce energy. • Moving to Sustainable Energy, such as; Solar, Wind, Turbine etc. • Others___________________________
Different Forms of Conservation • Reduction of waste and pollution- • A tax on Carbon in Australia for the major polluting companies. • Recycling across shires- the use of recycling bins. • Cash for Cans • Recycled paper • Others_________________________________
Different Forms of Conservation • Education and awareness • Outdoor and Environmental Studies. • Schools- Primary and Secondary. • Examples_______________________ • Conservation groups
Different Forms of Conservation • Development of environmentally friendly energy sources • Transport- walking, riding car pooling etc. • Energy- • Solar • Wind • Hydro • Other__________________________
Different Forms of Conservation • Examples of Conservation Campaigns- • Historic Campaigns • Franklin Dam- Tasmania • Lake Pedder- Tasmania • Campaigns to stop the government from building Hydro Dams and as a result impacting on the biodiversity of the lakes. • Recent Campaigns- Links to website • Wilderness Society • Australian Conservation Foundation • Victorian National Parks Association • Greenpeace • Gould League
Conservation Attitudes Over Time • Patterns of Conservation Interactions – • Aboriginal – areas for no hunting/gathering, only took what they needed, use of fire for regeneration • Early European settlers – didn’t have any • 1800s – didn’t have any until late 1800s when national parks first became a possibility • 1900s – recognition of land degradation, environmental awareness, environment groups formed, national parks formed, acts of parliament passed and implemented, management strategies developed, use of resources limited • Now - ______________________________ • WHY have these interactions changed? ___________________________________
Recreation • Recreation is an activity of leisure. The need to do something for recreation is an essential element of human biology and psychology. Recreational activities are done for enjoyment, amusement or pleasure. The term recreation implies participation to health refreshing mind and body. • Outdoor Education definition- Recreation in the outdoors.
Types of Recreation • Fishing • Bushwalking • Hiking • Motorbike riding • Shooting • Camping • Watersports • 4WD • Rock climbing • Sky Diving • Paragliding • Mountain Bike Riding • Others_______________________________________________________________
Why do people participate in Recreation • Enjoyment • Happiness • Fitness • Social • Risk taking • Thrill seeking/rush • Experiences • Other???