Outdoor and Environmental Studies TAYLORS LAKES SECONDARY COLLEGE UNIT 3 REVISION 2014
Exam Format • Duration- 2 Hours • 13 Questions
Unit 3- Relationships with the Outdoors • The focus of this unit is the ecological, historical and social contexts of relationships between humans and outdoor environments in Australia. Case studies of impacts on outdoor environments are examined in the context of the changing nature of human relationships with outdoor environments in Australia.
Outcome 1 • On completion of this unit the student should be able to explain and evaluate how relationships with Australian outdoor environments have changed over time, with reference to specific outdoor experiences.
Key Knowledge • An overview of Australian outdoor environments before humans, including characteristics of biological isolation, geological stability, and climatic variations • Relationships with Australian outdoor environments expressed by specific Indigenous communities before and after European colonisation • Relationships with Australian outdoor environments as influenced by: • The first non-Indigenous settlers’ experiences • Increasing population – industrialisation • Nation building
Key Knowledge Continued… • The foundation and role of environmental movements in changing relationships with outdoor environments, in relation to at least one of the following: • The Wilderness Society • Australian Conservation Foundation • Victorian National Parks Association • Greenpeace • Gould League.
Key knowledge • An Overview of Australian Outdoor Environments before Humans, Including characteristics of Biological Isolation, Geological Stability and Climatic Variations.
Biological isolation • Limited transfer of animals and plants between countries/land mass due to isolation from the ocean or distance. • Therefore species evolve without other intervention. • Introducing species- • Aboriginals- introduced Dingos and eliminated Mega Fauna changing the landscape (Excessive hunting). • Europeans- made a larger impact by introducing a range of things to make Australia feel more like Europe. For E.g. Patterson’s Curse, Rabbits, Kane Toads etc. • They also prevented fire stick farming and the nomadic existence of the aboriginals.
Geological stability • Describes how stable a country is in relation to level of movement in Techtronic Plates. • Australia is an example of a stable country, as it is not close to the meeting of two plates. Majority of the country’s landscape is flat. • Due to limited amount of movement our soil quality is lower than other countries closer to the ends of the Tectonic Plates. • In comparison New Zealand sits directly over Plates resulting in movement and a Mountainous landscape. • New Zealand Earth Quake 2011 an active Plate it is more likely to experience Earthquakes due to the plates slipping.
Climatic variations • Changing in weather patterns. • Shapes and effects Flora and Fauna in different areas of the planet. • Recent increase in extreme weather can be attributed to climate change.
Key knowledge • Relationships with Australian Outdoor Environments expressed by specific Indigenous communities before and after European Colonization.
Specific indigenous community • Jardwadjali and DjabwurrungPeople • The first people that occupied the Grampians area prior to European colonisation were the Jardwadjali and Djabwurrungpeople Places of Significance • The Jardwadjali and the Djabwurrungare the traditional owners of a large part of the Grampians area but many othr tribes also used it as a meeting and trading place during certain seasons. • The Grampians was central to the Jardwadjali and the Djabwurrung people as it provided a variety of foods such as eels, fish from the streams as well as kangaroos and emus in the bushlands.
Relationships beforeeuropean settlement PERCEPTIONS (what they thought) • The land was perceived in terms on kinship (connection by blood, marriage, adoption, family)- Land as mother and protector • Spiritual connection with land • Land was perceived in terms of worship • The land owned the people as much as they owned the land- equal to it. • They are related to and part of the land • The sacred nature of the land impacted on all aspects of life. • The Dreaming (aboriginal spirituality) made strong links with people, the land and all living things • Spirits formed the earth’s landscape (eg. rainbow serpent) • When spirits die they are absorbed into the earth or go to the sky- sacred sites • People came from the earth & return to the earth when they die • Sacred sites extremely important • Part OF the land. Equal to the land.
Relationships beforeeuropean settlement PERCEPTIONS (what they thought) • Aborigines had totems – individually and as a tribe • Nature provides everything needed for survival – food, tools, clothing, shelter • People have a responsibility to protect and care for the land, individually and collectively • People are part of the earth and must live in harmony with it
Relationships beforeeuropean settlement INTERACTIONS (what they did) • Hunting and gathering • Nomadism/semi-nomadism- moved with the seasons or after small period of time so they did not exhaust supplies • Firestick farming- use of fire to clear land to create/regenerate grasslands to attract large mammals for hunting and make travel easier • Sacred sites- burial sites, sites of worship to the ancient spirits and ceremonies. The sites often coincided with ecologically sensitive areas – such as breeding grounds for food species • Sustainable • Conservation zones • Rock painting • Food – shellfish, bird eggs, yams etc • Hunting – possums, kangaroos, emus, seals • Tools - made stone tools from rocks on beach • Clothing – made cloaks & bags of possum or kangaroo skin • Shelter – stacked sheets of bark against a tree/branch • Transport – made canoes from bark to travel to Phillip and French Islands • Annual ceremonies & feasts
Relationships beforeeuropean settlement IMPACTS (the effects) • Nomadic lifestyle meant impact was minimal • Generally very low- middens, rock art, scarred trees and stone carving sites are often all that remain • Introduction of Dingo (extinction on mainland of Thylacine) and possible impacts on some marsupials. • Firestick farming may have change forest environments- creation of grasslands, assist in destruction of fire sensitive species (beech forest), promotion of plants that regenerate after fire (eucalypts)
Relationships beforeeuropean settlement • IMPACTS (the effects) • May have helped in extinction of Megafaunadue to hunting – giant wombat (diprotodon) & giant kangaroo (procoptodon) • Fish traps • Decreased populations of aquatic birds due to harvesting of eggs in spring
JardwadjaliandDjabwurrungrelationships after colonisation • Aboriginal Relationships • Europeans believed Australia to be Terra Nullius. • Tricked Aboriginals into signing over land. • Aboriginal life changed significantly due to reduction of space to carry out every day life as a nomad.
Treated as pests • Unfortunately in many parts of the country, aboriginal people where treated worse than feral animals. Farmers and landowners would ride into camps shooting men, women, children and babies for the sport of it. While this was still considered murder, it mostly went unreported. Mounted police engaging Indigenous Australians during the Slaughterhouse Creek Massacre of 1838
Stolen generations • Aboriginal people were often forcibly moved from their land if it was of value to settlers. Children who had mixed blood, were routinely taken from their parents and moved to orphanages across the country (the stolen generations)
Now the minority • A lot of people in more populated areas of Australian were put onto reservations and missions operated by the government and the church. Today aboriginal people make up less than 1% of the population, they survived in larger numbers in more remote country areas.
Rectifying the wrongs • Aboriginal history is unfortunately a very sad one, however in 1967 they were allowed to vote (previous to this they could not vote as they were officially recognised at Fauna – native animals).
Mabo In 1992 the landmark ‘Mabo’ case recognized native title of the first time’. This case disputed the legal principal of ‘Terra Nullius’, by which the British legally occupied Australia. The British Government successfully argued that the aborigines did not have a civilised society, until it was overturned in 1992.
Mabo changing attitudes • Some land has since been returned to the traditional owners. • Increasingly Indigenous Australians are being acknowledged as the traditional owners of the land and as having great knowledge of the environment.
Reconciliation • In 1999, then Prime Minister John Howard passed a seven-point Motion of Reconciliation – a nationally significant step forward despite the controversial expression of “deep and sincere regret” for past injustices, hurt and trauma imposed on Indigenous people. The expression was publicly debated because of a call to the Prime Minister from many for a straight “sorry”.
Reconciliation - Sorry Day • The National Sorry Day followed this step for reconciliation. • On 13 February 2008, the Commonwealth parliament passed a motion that formally apologised to the Stolen Generations. The then Prime Minister Kevin Rudd tabled the motion, apologising to Indigenous Australians for "for the laws and policies of successive Parliaments and governments that have inflicted profound grief, suffering and loss". http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aKWfiFp24rA
Today • Indigenous Australians are politicians, teachers, technicians, painters, singers, musicians, athletes, scientists, environmentalists etc.. • Increasing opportunities enable all aboriginals to enter the spot light in all walks of life, becoming the valuable members in society that they are.
Key knowledge • Relationships with Australian Outdoor Environments as influence by- • The First Non-Indigenous Settlers Experience • Increasing Population • Industralisation • Nation Building
Key Skills • Describe the characteristics of the Australian environment before humans. • Describe and analyse the changing relationships with Australian outdoor environments expressed by specific Indigenous communities. • Describe and analyse the changing relationships with Australian outdoor environments influenced by historical events and associated key social and cultural issues.
Key Skills Continued… • Evaluate the role of a specific environmental movement in changing relationships with outdoor environments. • Plan for and reflect upon a range of practical sustainable outdoor experiences and analyse relevant information collected during these experiences. • Evaluate changing relationships in relation to a particular outdoor environment visited.
First Non Indigenous Settlers experience • Found the land Terra Nullius. • Initial view of the land- hard, barren, seasons at the wrong time, hot and not England. • Acquired land and viewed Australia as a opportunity to make money. • No thoughts to sustainability. • Introduced Plants and Animals to make more like England.
Increasing Population • Gold Rush in the Stawell area • Damage due to mining • Technology increasing without thought to the environment. • Effects to the Australian Environment due to increase in immigration. • More people more facilities.
Industralisation • Increasing technology- increased efficiency in every day life as well as the consequences for the environment. • Infrastructure improved- roads, railways etc. • The need to feed, house, employ and provide energy and other services to a growing population. • Development and Exports dominated the relationship with the land. Grampians eg = Heatherlie quarry.
Nation Building • The return of solders from WW1 and WW2 provided opportunity and challenges. • Increase in the Infrastructure developments. • Returning Vets and immigration provided a workforce to help in the construction of dams, roads, farms and large scale energy projects. All of which had large implications for the Australian environments. Grampians eg.= Bellfield dam, roads, paths and NP constructed.
Key knowledge • The foundation and role of environmental movements in changing relationships with outdoor environments, in relation to at least one of the following- • The Wilderness Society • Australian Conservation Society • Victorian National parks Association • Greenpeace • Gould League
Environmental Movements • Need to research and know one in detail. • Australians during the early 70s started to change their view of the use of Australian resources. • Sustainability is now starting to be considered. • Today the battle between $ and sustainability continues. • Youtube examples
The Wilderness society. • Purpose is protecting, promoting and restoring wilderness areas. • Is not for profit, has no political affiliations is community based and has a policy of non violence. • Best known for their successful campaign to stop the damming of the Franklin River in Tasmania.
The Wilderness society. Overview • The Wilderness Society is a national, community-based, environmental advocacy organisation whose purpose is protecting, promoting and restoring wilderness and natural processes across Australia for the survival and ongoing evolution of life on Earth. • The Wilderness Society works through the avenues of public education and empowerment, advocacy and negotiation, and desk and field research. The Wilderness Society is politically unaligned, but uses democratic processes to maximise wise conservation decisions.
‘Save the Franklin’ Read over the Franklin River Article Answer the Following questions: • What was the issue at the Franklin River? • What effect has this initial campaign had on environmental movements (“Green campaigns”)? • What effect would damming have on this river (up and down stream)? • Why is this case seen as a turning point for Australia’s thinking about the environment? • This movement was the beginnings of the Wilderness Society. How has this movement and group changed people’s relationships with the Franklin River and other local areas?
Outcome 2 • Contemporary relationships with outdoor environments • In this area of study students examine current relationships between humans and outdoor environments. They examine a number of ways outdoor environments are portrayed in different media; the dynamic nature of relationships between humans and their environment; and the social, cultural, economic and political factors that influence these relationships.
Key Knowledge • Contemporary societal relationships with outdoor environments reflected in different forms of conservation, recreation, primary industries, and tourism practices. • The factors influencing contemporary societal relationships with outdoor environments, including: • The effects of different technologies
Key Knowledge Continued… • Commercialisation of outdoor environments and outdoor experiences. • Portrayals of outdoor environments and outdoor experiences in the media, music, art, writing and advertising. • Social responses to risk taking. • Social and political discourses about climate change, water management, biosecurity and other contemporary environmental issues.
Key Skills • Plan for and reflect upon a range of practical sustainable outdoor experiences and analyse relevant information collected during these experiences. • Compare and contrast different contemporary societal relationships with outdoor environments. • Analyseand evaluate factors influencing contemporary societal relationships with outdoor environments. • Analysecontemporary social and political discourses about environmental issues.
Grampians Excursion • The Grampians National Park (also Gariwerd) is a National Park in Victoria, Australia, 235 Kilometers west of Melbourne. • Features of the Park- • Large areas of Wilderness. • Many walking trails for recreational users • Large camping grounds catering for many groups. • Native wildlife and plant species. • Brambuk cultural centre • Problems the park is facing- • Pollution • Human effects • Past Mining at Heathlea Quarry
Grampians Excursion Continued… • Changes over time- • Large amounts of indigenous heritage • Relatively untouched until Industralisation brought quarrying. • Walking tracks marked out for recreational users. • Commercialisation of activities • Declared a National Park to restrict deforestation and quarrying • Reasons why we went to the excursion- • Learn about Indigenous and European interactions. • To see effects of Commercialisationand Tourism. • Enjoy the area as a recreation and study site.
Key Knowledge • Contemporary societal relationships with outdoor environments reflected in different forms of conservation, recreation, primary industries, and tourism practices.