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Second Temple Judaism. Ezra-Nehemiah to the Maccabees. Approximate Timeline (1). 540 Cyrus 520 Rebuilding Temple 458 Traditional date of Ezra 445 Nehemiah 333 Alexander the Great. Approximate Timeline (2). 323 Division of the Empire 200 Seleucids take Judah

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second temple judaism

Second Temple Judaism

Ezra-Nehemiah to the Maccabees

approximate timeline 1
Approximate Timeline (1)
  • 540 Cyrus
  • 520 Rebuilding Temple
  • 458 Traditional date of Ezra
  • 445 Nehemiah
  • 333 Alexander the Great
approximate timeline 2
Approximate Timeline (2)
  • 323 Division of the Empire
  • 200 Seleucids take Judah
  • 175 Antiochus Epiphanes reigns
  • 168 Maccabees Revolt
  • 164 Rededication of Temple
  • 63 Roman rule begins
ezra 1 6
Ezra 1-6

Beginning Again

the book ezra
The Book Ezra
  • In Hebrew, includes Ezra and Nehemiah
    • Ezr 1-6 Rebuilding temple
    • Ezr 7 – Neh 13 Rebuilding Wall and Community
  • Variant book (1 Esdras)
    • Eliminates Nehemiah story
    • Emphasizes Zerubbabel over Jeshua
    • Ties to 2 Chronicles
building the temple
Building the Temple
  • Decree of Cyrus [1:1-4; 6:1-5]
  • Opposition of “enemies” [4:1-5]
  • Confusion of temple and walls – and of kings [4:6-24]
  • Haggai and Zechariah [5:1; 6:14]
    • Encourage wall-building
    • No evidence of support for rebellion
    • Last positive reference to current prophets
ezra 7 10 nehemiah 9
Ezra 7-10; Nehemiah 9

Ezra the Scribe

ezra in his book 1
Ezra in His Book (1)
  • Mission from Artaxerxes
    • Ezra 7:11-26
  • Trip home
    • Praise [Ezra 7:27-28]
    • Completing community [Ezra 8:15-20]
    • Fasting preparation [Ezra 8:21-25]
ezra in his book 2
Ezra in His Book (2)
  • Crisis of foreign wives
    • Ezra 9:1-4; 10:9-17
  • Reading the law
    • Nehemiah 8:1-8
  • Feast of booths
    • Nehemiah 8:13-18
nehemiah 1 7 12 13
Nehemiah 1-7; 12-13

Nehemiah

The Governor

nehemiah in his memoirs 1
Nehemiah in His Memoirs (1)
  • Mission from Artaxerxes
    • Nehemiah 2:1-10
  • Rebuilding walls
    • Nehemiah 2:17-20
  • Righting economic injustice
    • Nehemiah 5:1-13
nehemiah in his memoirs 2
Nehemiah in His Memoirs (2)
  • Settling of Jerusalem
    • Nehemiah 7:4-5
      • [Nehemiah 11:1-2]
  • Keeping Sabbath
    • Nehemiah 13:15-22
  • Crisis of foreign marriages
    • Nehemiah 13:23-28
a different view
A Different View
  • Third Isaiah
    • [See previous class notes]
  • Jonah
    • Forgiveness for the oppressors
  • Elephantine
    • Lost Jewish colony
  • Ruth
    • David’s Moabite ancestry
daniel 1 6
Daniel 1-6

Living among Foreigners

the stories
The Stories
  • Daniel 1: Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah prosper
  • Daniel 2: Nebuchadnezzar’s statue dream
  • Daniel 3: The fiery furnace
  • Daniel 4: Nebuchadnezzar with the beasts
  • Daniel 5: Belshazzar’s banquet
  • Daniel 6: Darius and the lion’s den
other stories
Other Stories
  • Additions to Greek Daniel
    • Susanna
    • Bel and the dragon
    • Prayer of Azariah and Song of the three
  • Esther
    • Hebrew and Greek
  • Tobit
    • Story of “Jewish” exiles from Israel
daniel 7 12
Daniel 7-12

Crisis and Liberation

historical cast of characters
Historical Cast of Characters
  • Antiochus Epiphanes
    • “Epimanes”
  • Mattathias
    • Priest in the village of Modin
  • Judas
    • Maccabeus [The Hammer]
  • Jonathan and Simon
    • His brothers
daniel s visions
Daniel’s Visions
  • The four beasts [Daniel 7]
  • The ram and he-goat [Daniel 8]
  • Daniel’s prayer – and 70 weeks [Daniel 9]
  • Vision of the man who predicts fall of Persia and battles among Greeks, until they lose in battle against Michael [Daniel 10-12]
    • Daniel 12:5-13
related works
Related Works
  • 1 and 2 Maccabees [partisan histories]
  • 3 Maccabees [in Egypt]
  • Judith
    • Fictional battle won by resourceful woman
  • Apocalyptic
    • 2 Esdras
    • Revelation
    • 1 Enoch
legacy for the future
Legacy for the Future
  • Models of witness / martyrdom
  • Divisions in the community
    • Sadducees, Samaritans, Pharisees, Essenes, People of the Land
  • Hope
    • Community rebirth
    • Individual resurrection