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Indus Valley

Indus Valley

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Indus Valley

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  1. Indus Valley ~ PBS India Intro. Video ~ (5:23 Minutes) Chapter 7 Pg. 116

  2. Objectives • How did government develop? • How did they rise/fall? • Discuss major conflicts and the significance of them. • What role does religion play? • Discuss the impact of the innovations of the period.

  3. Vocabulary • Subcontinent • Monsoons • Hinduism • Reincarnation • Caste System • Epics • Asoka • Peshawar • Tamils • Guptas

  4. 4

  5. India’s Legacy ~ PBS Taj Mahal Video ~ (1:13 Minutes) • Hinduism • Taj Mahal • Decimal System • Creating Zero

  6. Indus Valley Timeline (Text Pg. 130) • Harappan Age (2500 – 1500 B.C.) • Highly developed cultures in Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa • Vedic Age (1500 – 500 B.C.) • Invaders took over India, it is called the Vedic Age because of the sacred books created called Vedas • Epic Age (900 – 500 B.C.) • Late Vedic Age when the Mahabharata and Ramayana were created in which ideas of theHindu religion are presented • Mauryan Empire (321 – 184 B.C.) • Gupta Empire (A.D. 320 – 500) • Post Guptan “Golden Age” (A.D. 500 – 1100) • Dehli Sultanate (A.D. 1100 – 1526)

  7. Harappan Age(2500 – 1500 B.C.) Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro • Located in Indus River Valley • Developed civilizations • Industry / Trade • Writing • High level of organization • Aryans invaded

  8. Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa Mohenjo-Daro Slideshow Harappa Slideshow

  9. Homes in Mohenjo-Daro • Grid layout • Different districts • Paved streets lined with shops • Windows facing the courtyard • Staircases to roof

  10. Bathrooms in Mohenjo-Daro Toilets

  11. Sewer System Drainage Outlets

  12. Mohenjo-Daro • Citadel or fort • Guarded the city • Had a granary and a large bath believed to be used for religious rituals.

  13. Inside the Citadel • Bath located in the middle of the picture • Granary in the background on the mound

  14. Different Classes of People • Domestic articles • Children’s toys

  15. Stamp Seals • 400 Symbols found • Not deciphered • Used to show ownership

  16. Religion Goddesses The Priest-King

  17. Aryan Invasion(1750 B.C.) Look at geography: What features do you see? Where would people settle? Why would they settle there? Explain the ecosystems in India.

  18. Aryans • Nomad warriors • From Central Asia • Group split • One to Greece, Italy & Europe • One to Asia Minor & Middle East • Third crossed Hindu Kush Mtns. • Found Dravidians: People from Indus Valley • Aryans herded animals between raids • Neglected Dravidian cities

  19. Check this out…Click video and be able to answer the following questions. • In which country is Harappa located today? • Before the 1920’s why would Europeans believe that Indian culture was primitive / backward? • What happened to Harappa that made it “lost” for so long? ~ PBS Harappa Video ~ (3:43 Minutes)

  20. Vedic Age(1500 - 500 B.C.) Veda = Knowledge • First Aryan-influenced civilization • Vedas = a collection of writings/scriptures • Contained information on how Aryans lived • # 1 Family - #2 Concern for group • To this day, the welfare of the Indian family is often more important that the wishes of an individual. • Hinduism began

  21. Religion - HinduismIs it monotheistic or polytheistic? Brahman = God = Everything in the universe There are many more Gods, but they are the different faces of Brahman. Reincarnation = “To be put again into a body.” Life exists so the soul can learn the difference between the dream and reality.

  22. Vedic Age(1500 - 500 B.C.) • Caste system begins • Social organization • 4 Groups Government • Nomadic • Tribal with a king

  23. Epic Age(900 - 500 B.C.) – Notice…this is still in the Vedic Age Epics = Long story-poems on heroic subjects & offerethical instruction Most famous poems • Mahabharata • Ramayana Government • Small kingdoms formed • Had some elements of democracy • King was leader of legislative, executive and judicial areas

  24. Sanskrit (alphabet) invented ~ PBS Sanskrit Video ~ (4:39 Minutes) Answer these questions during the video. Which caste passed down the Vedas? What 2 languages have similar words to Sanskrit? Epic Age(900 - 500 B.C.)

  25. Indian Invasions & Empires(328 B.C. – A.D. 647) Alexander the Great • Hoped to conquer Asia • Crossed into Indus Valley • Defeated Mauryan Empire (321 – 184 B.C.) Chandragupta Maurya • Influenced by Alexander the Great • Seized northern kingdoms • Declared himself ruler

  26. Mauryan Empire(321 B.C. – 184 B.C.) Asoka • Grandson of Chandragupta • Planned to unify India • Tried war once  Didn’t like it • Became Buddhist • Told his people to lead virtuous lives • After his death many bad leaders and then more invasions until A.D. 200

  27. Gupta Empire – “Golden Age”(A.D. 320 - 500) Daily Life • City-State Government • Rulers were strong and fair • Income from: • Port fees • Land taxes • Produce taxes • Buddhism declined • Learning Advanced • Developed number symbols • Decimal system • Created Zero • Earth was round (Check out the date…Some Europeans still thought the world was flat by A.D. 1000!)

  28. Small Kingodoms ruled Many wars Southern Kingdoms Stronger 800 A.D. – Northern Kingdoms rose Fought off Abbasid armies Abbasid – People from present day Iraq Great Architecture created 1000 A.D. – Cholan Empire (South) 1100 A.D. – Abbasid armies won Post-Guptan “Golden Age” (A.D. 500 - 1100)

  29. Muslim general started dynasty Made of many dynasties 1192 – Slave Dynasty Mamluks – Slave Soldiers Converted Hindus & Buddhists to Islam Ended in civil war 1290 – Khalji Dynasty Controlled even southern part of India Began loosing control by 1325 Southern India = Hindu state Central India = Islamic state 1398 – Mongols invaded Ended Delhi Sultanate by 1500 Dehli Sultanate (A.D. 1100 - 1526) Islam introduced to India.