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  1. Y2.U1.1 Dairy & Egg

  2. Objectives • Explain and demonstrate how to keep milk products safe and sanitary • Differentiate between butter and margarine by listing the characteristics of each • List the characteristics of ice cream • Distinguish between several types of cheeses and give examples of each

  3. Key Terms • Clarified butter • Cream • Homogenization (huh-MAH-juh-ni-ZAY-shun) • Margarine • Pasteurization (PASS-cher-I-ZAY-shun)

  4. Intro • Milk, cheese, and butter play an important roll in the American menu • Most Asian cuisines use few, if any, dairy products • Cheese is an important food in itself and also as a component in many recipes.

  5. Sanitation • Dairy items should be stored at 40 degrees F. or lower in a tightly sealed container. • Dairy products tend to absorb other orders and flavors quickly and easily

  6. Milk Products • Milk is a popular beverage and an important ingredient, providing texture, flavor, color and nutritional value for a variety of cooked or baked items. • Milk is a highly nutritional food, providing proteins, vitamins, and minerals (calcium) • Milk is highly perishable and an excellent bacterial breeding ground

  7. Milk Grading • Milk is graded A, B, or C based on bacteria count. • By law, all grade A milk is pasteurized, which means the milk has been heated to a high enough temperature long enough to destroy pathogenic bacteria (161 degrees F. for 15 seconds)

  8. Milk • Ultra-pasteurization is heating to a very high temperature (275 degrees F.) which increases shelf life • Homogenization is a process in which the fat globules are reduced in size and dispersed through the liquid preventing separation

  9. Milk & Milkfat

  10. More on Milk • All milks contain the same amount of fat soluble vitamins A & D and calcium • Evaporated milk has 60% of the water removed • Sweetened condensed milk has 60% of water removed and contains 40-45% sugar • Dry milk has virtually all the water removed

  11. Cream & Milkfat

  12. Cream Notes • More viscous than milk • Adds flavor and body to sauces , soups desserts • Whipping cream can be whipped into a stiff foam

  13. Cultured Dairy Products • These products are produced by adding specific bacterial cultures which convert lactose into lactic acid, giving them body and a tangy unique flavor • Buttermilk is a tangy, thickened, cultured (streptococcus lactis) low-fat, or no-fat milk (originally liquid remaining after butter production)

  14. Cultured Dairy Products • Sour Cream is a tangy, thickened, cultured light cream containing 16-22% milkfat, used as a condiment and in baking • Crème fraîche is a tangy, nutty, thickened cultured cream, thinner and richer than sour cream containing 30% milkfat and does not curdle in soups and sauces like sour cream or yogurt

  15. Cultured Dairy Products • Yogurt is a thickened, cultured (lactobacillus bulgaricus and streptococcus thermopbilus) milk, containing the same milkfat as the milk used (whole, low-fat, non-fat), often containing fruit and/or sweeteners, is used in baked goods, salad dressings, frozen desserts, and is prevalent in Middle Eastern cuisine

  16. Ice Cream Specs • Custards churned during freezing • Contain not less than 10% milkfat, 20% milk solids, not more than 50% overrun • Overrun is the amount of air (added volume) churned in

  17. Butter • Butter contains at least 80% milkfat, not more than 16% water and 2-4% milk solids • 93° F. melt point • 260° F. smoke point • Salted butter contains up to 2.5% salt • Unsalted butter is preferred for desserts and baking

  18. Butter • Grade AA, superior quality, fresh sweet flavor, creamy texture • Grade A, good quality, pleasing flavor, fairly smooth texture • Grade B, standard quality, made from sour cream, acceptable flavor, used to manufacture foods.

  19. Butter • European-style butter, 82-86% milkfat, very little or no salt, made from cultured cream • Whipped butter increases volume, spreadability and susceptibility to rancidity • Clarified butter has had water and milk solids removed, higher smoke point

  20. Butter • Ghee, slower process, evaporating more water and browning solids, 375° F. smoke point

  21. Margarine • Not a dairy product • Manufactured from vegetable or animal fats - flavor, color, emulsifiers, preservatives, vitamins added – solidified by exposure to hydrogen gas (hydrogenation), (trans-fat), the firmer the margarine the greater the hydrogenation – diet margarine contains 50% water

  22. Margarine • 80% of margarine’s calories must come from fat • Liquid margarine is often used in sautéing and grilling • Margarine often has a higher smoke point

  23. Food Spoilage Facts* • Milk is spoiled when it starts to look like yogurt. Yogurt is spoiled when it starts to look like cottage cheese. Cottage cheese is spoiled when it starts to look like regular cheese. Regular cheese is nothing but spoiled milk anyway and can't get any more spoiled than it is already. *not

  24. Cheese • One of the oldest and widely used foods on the planet • Each starts with a mammal’s milk, milk proteins (casein) are coagulated with the addition of an enzyme (rennet) separating into solid curds [curdling] and liquid whey, curds go to fresh cheese (ricotta, cottage) or are further processed by cutting, kneading, or cooking

  25. Storing Cheese • 35-45 degrees F. at high humidity (bottom of refrigerator) • Wrap in waxed or parchment paper to allow breathing, rewrap on each opening, film is often used • Double wrap strong cheeses • Many cheeses become chauky upon freezing

  26. Cheese Varieties • Cheese classifications can overlap • “However, there are no objective measurements of the softness or hardness of cheese. Some cheeses such as brick, classified as semi-soft, may actually be harder than rindless Swiss or washed-curd Cheddar, which are described as hard cheeses.” – National Dairy Council • Fresh or Unripened: mild, creamy, tart not bitter, 40-80% moisture, highly perishable Queso Oaxaca: 40-45% milkfat cow milk

  27. Fresh/Unripened Cottage Cheese: 4-10% milkfat cow milk Cream Cheese: 35% milkfat cow milk Feta: 70-75% milkfat sheep/goat milk

  28. Fresh/Unripened Mascarpone: 70-75% milkfat cow milk Ricotta: 4-10% milkfat cow milk/whey Mozzarella: 70-75% milkfat cow/buffalo milk

  29. Cheese Varieties • Soft: thin-skinned, creamy, mild flavor, 50-75% moisture Brie: 60-75% milkfat cow milk

  30. Soft Camembert: 45% milkfat cow milk Boursin: 60-75% milkfat cow milk

  31. Cheese Varieties • Semi-Soft: mild, buttery, smooth, sliceable 40-50% moisture Fontina: 45% milkfat cow milk

  32. Semi-Soft Port du Salut: 50% milkfat cow milk Edam: 45% milkfat cow milk Muenster: 50% milkfat cow milk

  33. Cheese Varieties • Hard\Firm: close-textured, firm, 30-40% moisture Swiss: 45% milkfat cow milk Emmenthaler, Gruyère, Jarlsberg

  34. Hard\Firm Provolone: 45% milkfat cow milk Cheddar: 45-50% milkfat cow milk Blue: 45% milkfat cow milk Roquefort, Stilton, Gorgonzola

  35. Hard\Firm Manchego: 40-57% milkfat cow milk Asiago: 30% milkfat cow milk

  36. Cheese Varieties • Hard\Grating: carefully aged, firm, crumbly, 30% moisture Parmigiano Romano Sapsago

  37. Cheese Varieties • Goat’s milk: (Chèvre) rich concentrated flavor, tangy

  38. Cheese Varieties • Pasteurized processed • Blended aged and green cheeses mixed with emulsifiers and flavorings

  39. Cheese Varieties • Processed cheese food • less natural cheese (minimum 51%), higher moisture, often vegetable oil and milk solids added

  40. Cheese Varieties • Imitation • dairy by-products and soy, rubbery, lacks flavor

  41. Y2.U1.1 The Versatile Egg

  42. Objectives • List the characteristics of eggs and include size and grade. • Prepare and serve eggs using a variety of cooking methods.

  43. Terms • Baste • Omelet • Poach • Quiche (keesh) • Ramekin (RAM-uh-kin) • Shirred • Soufflé (soo-FLAY)

  44. Intro • The egg is one of the most versatile and essential foods. • Eggs are used for thickening, coloring, adding moisture, forming emulsions, foaming, and enriching other foods.

  45. Egg Characteristics • An egg is composed of the outer shell, the white (albumen), and the yolk. • Egg white consists of protein and water • Egg yolks contains protein, fat and lecithin. • Chalazae are membranes that hold the egg yolk in place.

  46. Egg Parts

  47. Egg Grades

  48. Egg Grade

  49. Egg Age • As eggs age, they lose density. The thick part of the white becomes larger, and the egg spreads over a larger area when it is broken. • Yolks that break on gentle cracking are old, weakness of membrane that separates yolk • Fresh Eggs have small air cell, thick white, strong yolk membrane

  50. Check Egg Freshness • In-shell • In water, lie flat (small air cell) • Out of shell • Yolk standing up (strong membrane), compact white, prominent chalazae