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Sheep and Goat Industry. Animal Science Level 2. Unit Map: Follow Along in your packet. WHAT ARE YOU LEARNING? AS.06.02(Basic): Recognize, identify, and evaluate the effects of diseases and parasites on animals. AS.03: Identify breeds of economically important animal species.

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sheep and goat industry

Sheep and Goat Industry

Animal Science Level 2

unit map follow along in your packet
Unit Map: Follow Along in your packet

WHAT ARE YOU LEARNING?

AS.06.02(Basic): Recognize, identify, and evaluate the effects of diseases and parasites on animals.

AS.03: Identify breeds of economically important animal species.

know understand do
Know Understand Do!

Know

Types of sheep

Basic Management practices

Basic terminology

Understand

  • Use and variation in sheep breeds
  • Importance of management in relation to industry and health
  • Use of terminology in the industry

Do

  • Identify common sheep breeds
  • Research disease prevention
  • Define and utilize basic sheep vocabulary
key learning sheep and goat industry
Key Learning: Sheep and Goat Industry

Unit EQ: Why are sheep and goats rising in economic importance ?

Concept :

Sheep/ Goat Industry

Lesson EQ:

How are sheep and goats utilized in the animal science industry?

Vocab

Lamb, Mutton, Wool

Concept :

Sheep/Goat Breeds and Uses

Lesson EQ:

What characteristics define sheep/goat breed uses?

Vocab

Meat, Dairy, Textiles

Concept :

Care and Management

Lesson EQ:

How does management effect the sheep/goat industry?

Vocab

Drenching, Shearing, Lambing

history of sheep
History of sheep
  • Today’s sheep descend from wild sheep (Mouflon) of Asia and Europe
  • Sheep are a source of fiber and meat
  • Sheep were first domesticated about 10,000 years ago
  • People used wool as much as 20,000 years ago

Corel Photo

introducing sheep to the world
Introducing sheep to the world
  • Columbus and other Europeans carried sheep to the New World
  • Spanish missionaries introduced to sheep to Native Americans in Mexico
  • Sheep are an important part of Navajo culture
introducing sheep to the world1
Introducing sheep to the world
  • The Navajo word for sheep translates to “that by which we live”
  • Merino sheep were imported to New England in 1793
  • During the next 20 years, demand for the Merino spread across the Northeastern U.S.
sheep in the u s
Sheep in the U.S.
  • With the development of synthetic fibers in the 20th century, the sheep industry has declined
  • Sheep and lamb population peaked at 56.2 million in 1942
  • In 1996, the sheep and lamb population had declined to 8.4 million
  • In 2001, 66,000 sheep producers in the U.S. were raising 6.9 million sheep and lambs
slide9
Wool
  • Sheep have been bred to produce finer wool fiber
  • People in Iran began selective breeding of sheep for finer wool 6,000 years ago
  • Fine wool sheep breeds of today originated with the Spanish Merino, developed more than 1,200 years ago
main areas in the sheep and goat industry
Main areas in the Sheep and Goat Industry
  • Dairy
    • Milk Production
  • Meat
  • Wool/Textiles

There are specific breeds that perform well in each area. There are also dual purpose breeds

slide11

What are the leading states and nations in sheep and goat production, and what are the major export and import markets for the United States?

  • D. The United States exports only about 2 percent of its lamb and mutton production.
    • Most U.S. mutton exports are to Mexico.
  • E. The United States imports more than 50 percent of the dairy goat cheese products it uses and consumes.
    • Most dairy goat cheese imports come from France.
how does the sheep and goat industry affect the u s economy
How does the sheep and goat industry affect the U.S. economy?
  • Compared with the beef, dairy, and swine industries, the sheep and goat industry is relatively small in terms of production numbers and overall impact on the economy.
  • On the other hand, the sheep and goat industry tries to increase sales in specialty markets.
  • A. The sheep industry
  • 1. The sheep industry has significantly changed over the past several years from wool to meat production.
  • 2. The demand for lamb and mutton remains steady and shows little change in preferences.
    • Americans have not traditionally consumed lamb regularly, the way they have beef, pork, and poultry products.
how does the sheep and goat industry affect the u s economy1
How does the sheep and goat industry affect the U.S. economy?
  • 3. The wool industry in the United States has changed as many wool mills have either closed or moved to other countries.
    • This allows for export markets to increase slightly for wool and wool products.
  • 4. The challenges for the sheep industry and American lamb products depend on the adoption of new technologies by producers, marketing improvements, research development, and perfection of efficiency at every stage of sheep production.
how does the sheep and goat industry affect the u s economy2
How does the sheep and goat industry affect the U.S. economy?
  • B. The goat industry
  • 1. Dairy goat milk and cheese see a steady growth in consumer demand as people become more aware of the higher protein and lower cholesterol levels in goat products versus dairy cow products.
    • Dairy goat producers market their products primarily through direct markets, farmers’ markets, or Internet sales, or they sell them directly to retail stores and restaurants.
    • Goat milk can be used to make cheese known as chevre.
  • 2. Meat goats are marketed through harvest facilities, auctions, or on-farm sites to private buyers.
    • Meat goats are sold based on their size and age.
    • An Easter kid is a noncastrated meat goat weighing 16 to 40 pounds that is usually sold seasonally to ethnic markets.
    • Cabrito is the meat from a noncastrated milk-raised kid weighing 25 to 40 pounds.
    • Technically, chevon is the meat from a goat of any age or size.
how does the sheep and goat industry affect the u s economy3
How does the sheep and goat industry affect the U.S. economy?
  • 3. As Hispanic and Asian populations continue to rise in the United States, so will the preference for goat meat.
    • Historically, these populations have preferred goat meat in their diets.
    • Faith-based populations have also increased in the United States, creating a greater demand for related food preferences.
    • Goat meat is not generally available at grocery stores or supermarkets.
    • It is sold at ethnic markets and specialty stores.
  • 4. Great potential exists for the goat industry in the United States as ethnic populations continue to grow.
    • Small goat farms have the greatest opportunity for growth as the demand in metropolitan areas increases.
    • Goat meat also offers a healthy choice to meet the demands of health-conscious Americans.
    • Industry groups must educate consumers and producers and increase marketing strategies.
    • Other challenges of the goat industry relate to the price and availability of the meat.
what food and non food products are produced by sheep and goats
What food and non-food products are produced by sheep and goats?
  • Sheep and goats are very versatile and offer many products for human use.
  • These animals provide both food and non-food products.
  • Many of the non-food products are used in the manufacturing of items that are used every day.
  • For example, baseballs are stuffed with wool and sewn with wool thread, the rubber lining is prepared from stearic acid, and the center cork contains processed blood.
what food and non food products are produced by sheep and goats1
What food and non-food products are produced by sheep and goats?
  • A. Meat that comes from a sheep under one year old (young sheep) is referred to as lamb.
    • Mutton is meat from a sheep that is over one year old.
    • Mutton has a very different taste than lamb.
    • Lamb is considered a delicacy.
    • Mutton has a strong flavor and is not as popular as lamb.
    • Meat from goats is referred to as chevon, depending on the age of the animal.
what food and non food products are produced by sheep and goats2
What food and non-food products are produced by sheep and goats?
  • B. The hide of sheep is used for leather.
    • The wool is used for clothing and other products, such as rugs, insulation, and artist brushes.
    • The wool also contains lanolin.
    • Lanolin is the grease found in the wool and is used in ointments and cosmetics.
what food and non food products are produced by sheep and goats3
What food and non-food products are produced by sheep and goats?
  • 1. The fats and fatty acids from the carcass are used in products such as floor wax, candles, crayons, brake fluid, tanning lotion, cosmetics, and glycerol that helps asphalt stick.
  • 2. The manure from sheep and goats can be used as fertilizer and contains nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and other various minerals.
what food and non food products are produced by sheep and goats4
What food and non-food products are produced by sheep and goats?
  • 3. The horns, hooves, and bones are used in a wide variety of products, such as shampoos/ conditioners, bone china, marshmallows, piano keys, and gelatin desserts.
  • 4. The products manufactured from the intestines can be the casings for foods such as sausages and hot dogs.
    • The intestines also provide materials used to make instrument strings.
what food and non food products are produced by sheep and goats5
What food and non-food products are produced by sheep and goats?
  • C. Goat milk can be used to make a cheese known as chevre.
    • Dairy goat producers market their products primarily through direct markets, farmers’ markets, Internet sales, or direct to retail stores and restaurants.
    • Goat cheese is one of the fastest-growing cheeses in the specialty cheese market.
    • It is considered a gourmet food, and restaurants use it in dishes such as pizza, salads, and desserts.
what food and non food products are produced by sheep and goats6
What food and non-food products are produced by sheep and goats?
  • D. Meat goats are marketed through slaughter facilities, auctions, or on-farm sites to private buyers.
  • Meat goats are sold based on their size and age.
  • 1. An easter kid is a meat goat weighing 16 to 40 pounds.
    • It should not be castrated and is usually sold seasonally to ethnic markets.
  • 2. A cabrito is the meat from a milk-raised kid that weighs 25 to 40 pounds and is not castrated.
    • Chevon is the meat from goats of any age or size.
    • Generally, chevon meat is from goats weighing over 60 pounds.
  • 3. The price of goats is typically higher before major ethnic holidays.
    • There is an increasing interest in goat meat in gourmet restaurants.
    • Goat meat is often found on the menu and usually comes with a high price tag.
what are the advantages and disadvantages of sheep and goat production
What are the advantages and disadvantages of sheep and goatproduction?
  • Sheep and goat production has several advantages and disadvantages.
  • A. The advantages of raising sheep and goats are:
    • 1. Sheep and goats are good grazers, and some do well on range environments.
    • 2. Compared with beef animals, sheep and goats are efficient eaters of forage.
    • 3. Sheep and goats are used for more than one purpose.
    • 4. Lambs and goats have a fast growing rate, and return on investment can be seen in a short time.
    • 5. Sheep and goats can be raised together.
    • 6. Sheep are used in public and private areas to control plants like poison ivy and honeysuckle.
    • 7. Sheep and goats are very popular for young children to raise as 4-H and FFA projects.
what are the advantages and disadvantages of sheep and goat production1
What are the advantages and disadvantages of sheep and goatproduction?
  • B. The disadvantages of raising sheep and goats are:
    • 1. The price of wool is very low.
    • 2. The popularity of lamb and mutton is low.
      • Interest has lacked in lamb for the diet; however, some improvements have been made in promoting the eating of lamb.
    • 3. Disease and parasite presence is very high in the production of sheep and goats.
    • 4. Predators, such as dogs, wolves, and coyotes, typically attack sheep and goats.
    • 5. Animals used for more than one purpose can cause an increase in labor.
activities
Activities
  • Picture’s worth a thousand words
    • Draw the history of the sheep up to today.
    • Begin with where sheep came from, and end with a product sheep are used to produce
  • Sheep are Better
    • Draw an advertisement for a sheep product. In your advertisement, include WHY your product containing sheep is better than a similar/related product that does not include sheep products.
sheep and goat terminology

Sheep and Goat Terminology

Animal Science Level 2

review activity
Review Activity

Worksheet One

Intro to Sheep and Goat Industry

Use the internet to answer the questions on your worksheet.

You can work in pairs on the computers.

You have 30 minutes to complete this activity

terms follow along with your worksheet
buck

cabrito

cashmere

chammy

chevon

chevre

doe

mutton

ram

wether

wool

yearling

Easter kid

ewe

kid

kidding

lamb

lambing

mohair

Terms: Follow Along with your Worksheet
slide29
What are the proper terms used in describing sheep and goats, and what are the parts of sheep and goats?
  • Knowing basic sheep and goat terminology is important.
  • A. The following are common names and terminology used in describing sheep and goats.
    • 1. A ewe is a female sheep.
    • 2. A ram is a male sheep used for breeding purposes.
    • 3. A doe is a female goat at any age.
    • 4. A buck is a male goat at any age.
    • 5. A kid is a goat of either sex under one year of age.
slide30
What are the proper terms used in describing sheep and goats, and what are the parts of sheep and goats?
  • 6. A yearling is a goat of either sex one year old or older but less than two years old.
  • 7. A wether is a male sheep or goat castrated when it was young.
  • 8. Lambing is the process of a sheep giving birth.
  • 9. Kidding is the process of a goat giving birth.
  • 10. Wool is a sheep’s coat used as a fiber for products such as clothing.
  • 11. Chammy is leather made from sheep or goats.
slide31
What are the proper terms used in describing sheep and goats, and what are the parts of sheep and goats?
  • B. When the main purpose of a sheep or goat is meat consumption, we look at it not only to identify its basic external parts but also to identify the meat cuts on the animal.
  • 1. Many external parts of sheep and goats must be known to “speak the language” when judging or selecting one animal over another.
slide32
What are the proper terms used in describing sheep and goats, and what are the parts of sheep and goats?
slide33
What are the proper terms used in describing sheep and goats, and what are the parts of sheep and goats?
slide34
What are the proper terms used in describing sheep and goats, and what are the parts of sheep and goats?
  • 2. Many other terms should be known in reference to meat cuts taken from sheep and goats.
    • a. Lamb is meat from a sheep under one year old (young sheep).
      • Mutton is meat from a sheep one year old or older.
      • Lamb is considered a delicacy.
    • b. Meat from a goat is referred to as chevon.
breeds of sheep
Breeds of sheep
  • 1,000 distinct breeds of sheep, with 50 breeds in North America
  • Many of these breeds are rare and some are in danger of extinction
  • In the U.S., four breeds account for more than two-thirds of the sheep population
breeds of sheep1
Breeds of sheep
  • Sheep are raised for wool and meat; some provide milk for cheese-making
  • Breeds can be classified according the type of wool they produce:
    • Fine wool
    • Medium wool
    • Long wool
    • Crossbred wool
    • Hair sheep

www.damaras.com

southdown
Southdown
  • Medium- to small-sized breed
  • Polled, medium-wool breed raised primarily for meat
  • Early maturing breed
  • Ewes have good lambing ability and average milk production
southdown1
Southdown

American Sheep Industry Association

hampshire
Hampshire
  • Large medium-wool breed
  • Mild disposition and polled
  • Rapid growth and efficient feed conversion
hampshire1
Hampshire

American Sheep Industry Association

suffolk
Suffolk
  • Most common breed in the U.S. (40 percent of sheep population
  • Medium-wool polled breed
  • Raised primarily for meat
suffolk1
Suffolk

American Sheep Industry Association

shropshire
Shropshire
  • Heaviest wool producers among medium-wool breeds
  • Medium-sized
  • Dual purpose breed suitable for both meat and wool
shropshire1
Shropshire

American Sheep Industry Association

dorset
Dorset
  • Medium-sized medium-wool breed
  • Both horned and polled varieties (polled is more common)
  • Ewes are good mothers and good milkers
  • Second most common breed in the U.S.
dorset1
Dorset

American Sheep Industry Association

delaine merino
Delaine Merino
  • Medium-sized fine-wool breed
  • Originated in Spain 1,200 years ago
  • Noted for producing the best wool in the world
delaine merino1
Delaine Merino

American Sheep Industry Association

rambouillet
Rambouillet
  • Fine-wool breed; medium size
  • Good carcass characteristics; dual-purpose breed
  • French in origin and descends from Spanish Merino
  • Produce some of the finest wool in the world
rambouillet1
Rambouillet

American Sheep Industry Association

montadale
Montadale
  • Medium-wool, dual-purpose breed
  • Produce high quality carcasses and excellent wool that is very white in color
montadale1
Montadale

American Sheep Industry Association

columbia
Columbia
  • Crossbred wool breed developed by the USDA in 1912
  • Produce large ewes with large lambs and good wool yield
  • Survive well on range conditions of the western U.S.
columbia1
Columbia

American Sheep Industry Association

barbado
Barbado
  • Hair sheep originated in Texas
  • Males are horned and females are polled
  • Color is usually tan, tan with pale or black belly, or “pied” (has two or more colors in large spots or blotches
barbado1
Barbado

American Sheep Industry Association

cheviot
Cheviot
  • Small-sized, medium-wool
  • Polled
  • Raised primarily for meat; produces a high-quality lamb carcass
  • Hardy sheep developed in Scotland and England

Objective 3: Evaluated on Assignment Sheet 1

cheviot1
Cheviot

American Sheep Industry Association

what are common types of goats and how do they differ
What are common types of goats, and how do they differ?
  • There are more than 300 breeds of domestic goats.
  • Selection of a specific breed for production depends on the grower’s personal needs and goals.
  • Goats are typically classified into types.
  • A. Angora goats originated in Turkey and are well adapted to areas not fit for other livestock.
    • Angoras are almost totally white at maturity and produce up to 7 pounds of mohair each year.
    • Angora goats are horned, with long, droopy ears.
    • At maturity a buck weighs between 125 and 175 pounds, and a doe weighs between 80 and 90 pounds.
what are common types of goats and how do they differ1
What are common types of goats, and how do they differ?
  • B. Dairy goats can produce 5 pounds of milk per day.
    • They supply 1.8 percent of the milk supply in the world.
    • Goat milk has more minerals than cow milk and is easier for small children and elderly people to digest.
    • The most common breeds raised in the United States, in order of their popularity, are French Alpine, LaMancha, Nubian, Saanen, and Toggenburg.
  • 1. French Alpine goats are known as good milkers and have no distinct color.
    • However, they are commonly shades of fawn, gray, brown, red, and black, or combinations of these colors.
    • This breed has short hair. French Alpines are larger-sized goats with a rangy look.
what are common types of goats and how do they differ2
What are common types of goats, and how do they differ?
  • 2. LaMancha goats are known for their external ears.
    • Two types—the “gopher ear” and the “elf ear”—are distinctive breed characteristics.
    • This breed has high milk production.
  • 3. Nubian goats are all-purpose goats, useful for meat, milk, and hide production.
    • They are not heavy milk producers, but their milk has a high-average butterfat content.
    • Nubian goats have long ears.
what are common types of goats and how do they differ3
What are common types of goats, and how do they differ?
  • 4. Saanen goats originated in Switzerland.
    • They are known as heavy milk producers.
    • Saanen goats are white or light cream in color, with white preferred.
    • The hair should be short and fine.
    • Saanens perform best in cooler conditions.
  • 5. Toggenburg goats are a medium-sized breed from Switzerland.
    • They are known to be the oldest credited dairy goat breed.
    • Toggenburg goats have excellent udder development and high milk production.
    • The color is solid, varying from light fawn to dark chocolate.
    • Toggenburgs have erect ears.
what are common types of goats and how do they differ4
What are common types of goats, and how do they differ?
  • C. Meat goats are also known as Spanish goats and are used for both milk and meat.
  • 1. Boer goats came from South Africa and made their first appearance to the United States in 1993.
    • Boer goats are known for their rapid growth rate, excellent carcass qualities, and adaptability.
    • They have white bodies with red heads.
    • This breed has grown in popularity among FFA and 4-H projects, as well as in the show ring.
what are common types of goats and how do they differ5
What are common types of goats, and how do they differ?
  • D. Cashmere goats have been developed by selective breeding.
    • Cashmere is the soft undercoat of fine down produced by goats.
    • There is usually a large demand for cashmere since it is in short supply.
    • Solid-colored goats are preferred in cashmere production, but multicolored goats are also used.
  • E. Pygmy goats were originally imported from Africa.
    • They are only 16 to 23 inches tall at the withers and have horns.
    • They can be any color or combination of colors.
    • The main uses of pygmy goats are for research, as pets, as 4-H and FFA projects, and in zoo exhibits.
activity
Activity
  • Iowa FFA CDE
  • Live Stock Judging: Sheep
  • Have out paper!
slide73
What are common parasites and diseases that affect sheep and goats, and what are appropriate prevention and treatment methods?
  • Several common parasites and diseases can affect sheep and goats.
  • Good management systems and prevention programs can control these.
  • A. External parasites attack sheep and goats.
    • Lice, horn flies, stable flies, ticks, blowflies, mange mites, and mosquitoes are common external parasites.
    • Symptoms include bites, scabs, and sores on the hide.
    • Pesticides sprayed around the pen or directly on the animal can serve as a treatment.
    • Good sanitation and sound management practices are preventives.
slide74
What are common parasites and diseases that affect sheep and goats, and what are appropriate prevention and treatment methods?
  • B. Internal parasites can live in sheep and goats for a long time and interfere with nutrients, cause diarrhea, and result in poor performance.
    • Common internal parasites are lungworms, stomach and intestinal worms, liver flukes, and coccidia.
    • A good, sound worming program is necessary for successful production.
  • C. Diseases can drastically affect sheep and goats.
    • Veterinarians help producers manage flock or herd health in the presence of diseases.
slide75
What are common parasites and diseases that affect sheep and goats, and what are appropriate prevention and treatment methods?
  • 1. Enterotoxemia, or overeating disease, is very common among growing lambs and kids.
    • Because large amounts of feed are ingested, intestinal bacteria undergo rapid growth and release a toxin.
    • Sudden death is usual in sheep and goats.
    • Single lambs are more frequently affected than twins.
    • Feeder lambs can also be susceptible once they are placed on heavy rations of grain or pasture.
    • A common treatment is to remove all concentrates from the ration and feed solely roughage.
    • The animals should be vaccinated, and the all-roughage ration should be continued until they have fully recovered.
    • Preventive practices include a vaccination program, good management, and proper feeding.
slide76
What are common parasites and diseases that affect sheep and goats, and what are appropriate prevention and treatment methods?
  • 2. Foot rot thrives in muddy areas where air is poorly circulated.
    • Foot rot is caused by bacteria.
    • Signs include a foul odor and a grayish, cheesy discharge, with lameness and intense pain.
    • Vaccination is available to treat foot rot, or the rotten area can be trimmed away and the foot treated with 10 to 30 percent copper sulfate.
    • Prevention of foot rot includes proper trimming of feet, keeping muddy pastures drained, and using a foot bath.
  • 3. Contagious ecthyma, or sore mouth, is a highly contagious disease.
    • Sores/scabs appear on the lips and mouth.
    • Humans are also susceptible to this disease.
    • When applying antibiotic ointments as a treatment, the producer should wear gloves.
    • Treatment should be applied until all sores are dried up.
    • A vaccination program is a valuable tool in preventing the disease.
slide77
What are common parasites and diseases that affect sheep and goats, and what are appropriate prevention and treatment methods?
  • 4. Bluetongue is caused by a virus and is transmitted by gnats.
    • Commonly, gnats will infect sheared sheep during warm weather.
    • Signs of bluetongue are fever, depression, nasal discharge, and loss of appetite.
    • The lips become swollen.
    • There is no treatment for the bluetongue virus.
    • Prevention should include vaccination at shearing time.
slide78
What are common parasites and diseases that affect sheep and goats, and what are appropriate prevention and treatment methods?
  • 5. Mastitis is an inflammation of the udder.
    • Signs include fever, depression, decreased milk production, abnormal milk, hardening or sensitivity of the udder, and loss of appetite.
    • Sometimes signs are not visible.
    • Bacteria can spread through dirty lots and bedding.
    • Several types of bacteria can cause mastitis.
    • Controlling mastitis requires cleaning and controlling the environment.
    • Treatments are sensitive to the severity of each case and may include antibiotics.
    • Ewes or does should be moved to individual pens, and a veterinarian should be contacted.
what different types of production systems are used for sheep and goats
What different types of production systems are used for sheep and goats?
  • Goats and sheep can be raised together.
  • They complement each other’s eating likes and dislikes.
  • There are five types of sheep production systems.
  • Goats can be raised in similar situations.
what different types of production systems are used for sheep and goats1
What different types of production systems are used for sheep and goats?
  • A. The farm flock method of sheep production describes the farm flocks that can have one sheep or thousands of sheep.
    • The farms are located in the midwestern, eastern, and southern United States.
    • The purpose of farm flocks is to produce market lambs and wool.
    • Many dairy goats are also raised with this type of production method and are popular throughout the country.
what different types of production systems are used for sheep and goats2
What different types of production systems are used for sheep and goats?
  • B. A purebred flock is one that sells rams and ewes of an ideal type.
    • The management requirements are high, and knowledge of genetics is helpful.
    • Many people starting a 4-H or FFA project will go to a purebred flock for their first purchases.
    • Many dairy and meat goat breeds are raised in a purebred flock.
    • These flocks express highly valuable genetics and are seen in the show ring.
what different types of production systems are used for sheep and goats3
What different types of production systems are used for sheep and goats?
  • C. The range band method of sheep production involves large bands of sheep (between 1,000 and 1,500) that are managed over a large area by a herder.
    • In high vegetation areas, sheep are used for meat.
    • In low vegetation areas, sheep are used for wool because the feed is not suitable to produce a market-quality lamb.
what different types of production systems are used for sheep and goats4
What different types of production systems are used for sheep and goats?
  • D. Some producers use confinement methods.
    • Confinement means raising animals completely indoors.
    • This method is popular because of the need for less land, fewer parasite problems, the increased ability to monitor animals, and the success of raising other animals in confinement.
    • Some disadvantages include increased building costs, higher feed costs, and the increased need for intense management.
  • E. Lamb feeding production involves weaning lambs and selling them to feedlots where the lambs are fed out to slaughter weight.
    • Meat goats are commonly raised in this type of situation.
what production practices are involved in the reproductive management of sheep and goats
What production practices are involved in the reproductive management of sheep and goats?
  • All types of producers must maintain efficient production practices to raise sheep and goats in a healthy and productive environment.
  • These production practices start with well-managed breeding management systems.
  • A. Kidding is the process of a goat giving birth.
    • Lambing is the process of a sheep giving birth.
    • The gestation period for goats is about five months.
    • The gestation period for a sheep is about 150 days.
    • The gestation period can vary in both sheep and goat breeds.
what production practices are involved in the reproductive management of sheep and goats1
What production practices are involved in the reproductive management of sheep and goats?
  • B. Sheep and goats are both seasonal breeders.
    • They are typically bred in late summer and early winter.
    • Meat goat breeding season depends on the decreasing of daylight.
    • There are no true signs of estrus other than acceptance of a ram/buck.
    • The estrus cycle of a ewe will occur every 16 to 17 days, while that of a goat will occur every 18 to 21 days.
what production practices are involved in the reproductive management of sheep and goats2
What production practices are involved in the reproductive management of sheep and goats?
  • C. The number of lambs or kids a female may have will vary among breeds.
    • It is common for dairy goats to have twins or triples.
    • Twins or multiples are common in some sheep breeds.
    • A good production practice in sheep is to calculate the percent lamb crop.
    • The higher the percent lamb crop the more that will be ready for market.
    • Another important production practice is to maintain the mortality rate below 25 percent.
what production practices are involved in the reproductive management of sheep and goats3
What production practices are involved in the reproductive management of sheep and goats?
  • D. The rams and/or bucks are kept separate from ewes until breeding season.
    • Rams should have access to water, pasture, and exercise.
    • Rams will require some additional grain feed during breeding and cold temperatures.
    • It is important to maintain a ram in good condition with low body fat.
what production practices are involved in the reproductive management of sheep and goats4
What production practices are involved in the reproductive management of sheep and goats?
  • E. A bred ewe or doe will require high-quality hay, pasture, feed, water, shelter, and exercise.
    • Supplemental grains are used to maintain health and condition during pregnancy.
    • The ewe or doe should be observed very closely as parturition time occurs.
  • 1. It is common to shear the ewe’s wool around the dock, flank, and udder.
    • The ewe is also directed to a dry, sheltered pen.
    • Once the ewe enters an individual pen, grain should be reduced.
what production practices are involved in the reproductive management of sheep and goats5
What production practices are involved in the reproductive management of sheep and goats?
  • 2. There are many complications that could occur at lambing or kidding time.
    • It is very important to observe and help ewes/does during the delivery.
    • It is a good production practice to make sure the young lamb/kid is in the right position.
    • It is also a good practice to make sure the ewe/doe accepts the young animal and allows nursing to begin.
what production practices are involved in the care of lambs and kids from birth to weaning
What production practices are involved in the care of lambs and kids from birth to weaning?
  • Several production practices are involved in the care of newborn lambs and kids.
  • A. Newborn lambs and kids should receive colostrum.
    • Colostrum is the first milk given by the mother.
    • It contains important nutrients for the newborn.
    • Mothers that deliver multiples can show acceptance to either one or none.
    • A common practice is to put a little bit of salt on the newborn lamb, allowing the ewe to lick and accept the baby.
    • If the mother has had complications during delivery, it is important for the producer to have supplemental nursing equipment ready.
what production practices are involved in the care of lambs and kids from birth to weaning1
What production practices are involved in the care of lambs and kids from birth to weaning?
  • B. The navel on newborn lambs and kids should be dipped with iodine as soon as possible, and the newborn should be kept in a clean stall or pen.
  • C. The newborn should be identified as soon as possible.
    • Applying ear tags is a common method of identification for sheep and goats.
    • It is important to maintain good recordkeeping practices.
  • D. Lambs and kids should enter immediately into the flock’s vaccination schedule.
    • Lambs should be wormed and vaccinated for overeating at an older age.
what production practices are involved in the care of lambs and kids from birth to weaning2
What production practices are involved in the care of lambs and kids from birth to weaning?
  • E. Lambs should be docked as soon as possible.
    • Docking is the removal or cutting off of part of the tail.
    • Docking is important because later, as the lamb grows, it prevents manure from accumulating and parasite infestation of the tail.
    • Lambs are typically docked from 3 to 10 days old.
    • Docking can be accomplished with the use of an elastic bank or electric docker.
    • Goats are not docked.
  • F. Castration of lambs should be conducted during the first month.
    • The equipment used is similar to docking.
what are the nutritional requirements of sheep and goats
What are the nutritional requirements of sheep and goats?
  • Sheep and goats are good grazers, and some do well in a range environment.
  • These animals are known for their scavenging ability.
  • Sheep and goats are efficient eaters of forage compared to beef animals.
  • Sheep will eat short grass and some broadleaf plants.
  • Goats will eat leaves off woody and broadleaf plants.
what are the nutritional requirements of sheep and goats1
What are the nutritional requirements of sheep and goats?
  • A. Sheep and goats require carbohydrates and fats that are used for energy.
    • These substances are mainly supplied through pasture and hay.
    • Grain is used before and during lambing season, as well as during drought, overgrazing, and in snow-covered pastures.
    • Grains commonly used in a sheep/goat ration are corn, oats, wheat, and grain sorghums.
what are the nutritional requirements of sheep and goats2
What are the nutritional requirements of sheep and goats?
  • B. Sheep and goats also require high levels of protein.
    • Protein levels are important due to the production of wool.
    • Legume grasses and plants found in a pasture setting contain good sources of protein for sheep and goats.
    • High-quality hay, containing alfalfa and clover, is also a good source of protein during the winter months.
    • Protein supplements may be used.
    • Sheep and goats raised in a range situation may develop a protein deficiency.
    • The producer should provide supplemental protein to prevent and/or control this problem.
what are the nutritional requirements of sheep and goats3
What are the nutritional requirements of sheep and goats?
  • C. Sheep and goats need minerals and vitamins in their rations.
    • Salt and mineral mixtures are common supplements given to these animals.
    • Vitamins A, D, E, and K are important and should be maintained in the diet or fed by free choice.
  • D. Water is the final component of the sheep and goat diet.
    • The average mature sheep will consume up to one gallon of water per day.
    • It is important to offer fresh, clean water to sheep and goats.
    • However, these animals can find water from other sources, such as snow, dew, and lush, green pastures.
activity1
Activity
  • Feeding and Management reading and worksheet
  • You’re the Expert
    • Your friend just purchased a large plot of land and they want to raise sheep just like their neighbors.
    • PROBLEM: They know NOTHING about sheep!
      • Explain to your friend (who has never heard of sheep before and knows nothing about care) how they should set up, care for, and run their sheep operation.
      • INCLUDE vocabulary learned in class, and UNDERLINE your vocabulary. At least 10 words.
test review
Test Review!
  • Ewe, Ram, Doe, Buck, Docking, Lambing/Kidding, Cabrito, Cashmere, Chevon, Chevre, Mutton, Wether, Wool, Yearling, Chammy
  • Briefly Explain the history of sheep
  • What are 3 main purposes of sheep/goats
  • What is Lanolin? Where does it come from? What purpose does it serve on sheep and for humans?
  • What is the current trend in the sheep/goat industry in the US? What is a major influence?
  • What are the common management methods?
  • Explain how a sheep program should run. What should it include? What is the main goal for all programs? How does the proper running of the program, help reach its goal?