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Social Psychology Social Influence
Topics • Conformity • Obedience • Application to everyday behaviour
Conformity • Definition: A form of social influence in which one complies with the position of a group from exposure to that group. • Examples? • Tendency to adopt attitudes, values and behaviours of one of your reference group.
Kelman 1958 Three types of Conformity: Compliance, Internalisation, and identification. • Compliance is social behaviour adopted because of the social researcher approval associated with it. • Internalisation- influence is accepted because it fits with personal value system. • Identification –The purpose of compliance is acceptance but are then internalises and accept what there doing as right
Research supporting Conformity ASCH 1956 • Aim: was to ask (p) to do a vision perception test. • Method: In any group there was one confederate. (P) asked to look at 3 straight lines then state and compare which was closet to the standard line. • (P) where asked to say the order of answers in which was closet to the standard line. • 123 UG where used and usually there answers came last or second to last. • Findings: 36.8% critical trials pp were incorrect. • 15.0% never conformed
Why did the participants fail? • Participants where interviewed. • Distortions of perception • Distortion of judgement (doubted their accuracy) • Distortion of action- Changed public behaviour but continued to trust their own judgement.
Variations in Asch’s Study Difficulty of task! As differences in line length became smaller conformity increased. Lucas et al (2006) influence can be moderated by ‘self-efficacy’. PP who are confident in their own ability remain more independent. (situational & individual) Size of majority Asch found little pressure if ‘majority’ just 1 or 2 but once 3, conformity jumped to 30%. SIZE of majority is important but only to a certain point. Unanimity of majority Asch found that when the pp had support from one other (either pp or confederate) conformity fell from 32% -> 5.5 % If they gave a wrong answer 32% -> 9.2 % For Asch most important factor for reducing conformity was breaking group concessions http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2BfrUX5EzfM&feature=related
Berns et al (2005)Berns Brains • Brain scans demonstrate that conformity is matched by activity in brain regions concerned with perception. () • Independent judgement shows as activity in emotion centres (The limbic system) • Showing that other may actually lead to changes in our perception.
Individual DifferencesEagly & Carli 1981 • 145 Meta analysis investigations. • Found that Females generally complied more than Males. • Male researchers more likely to find gender differences possibly because of materials used. • Females conformed more as the were less confident – (not because they were more conformist)