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Energy. Adapted From. Exploring Engineering. Chapter 4, Part 1 Energy. Energy. Energy is the capability to do work Work = force x distance Distance over which the force is applied Energy Units: SI: joules Mixed SI units: Watt-hours (= 3.6 kJ) English: ft-lbf “foot pound force”.

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Exploring engineering

Adapted From

Exploring Engineering

Chapter 4, Part 1

Energy


Energy1
Energy

  • Energy is the capability to do work

  • Work = force x distance

    • Distance over which the force is applied

  • Energy Units:

    • SI: joules

    • Mixed SI units: Watt-hours (= 3.6 kJ)

    • English: ft-lbf “foot pound force”


Energy2
Energy

  • Mixed SI units: Watt-hours (= 3.6 kJ)


Power
Power

  • How fast work is done or how rapidly the amount of energy possessed by an object changed

  • “Power is defined as time rate of doing work or time rate of change of energy”

  • Power = work/time

  • Power Units:

  • SI: watts (joules/sec)

  • English: Horsepower


Kinds of energy
Kinds of Energy

  • Kinetic Energy

  • Potential Energy

  • Some other forms of energy:

    • Magnetic energy

    • Electrical energy

    • Surface energy

    • Chemical energy (a form of potential energy)

    • Internal energy etc.

Often mechanical energy


Kinetic energy
Kinetic Energy

  • Also known as “Translational Kinetic Energy” (TKE)

    TKE = ½ mv2 (SI units)

    = ½mv2/gc (English units)

    m = mass, v = speed, gc = 32.2 lbm.ft/lbf.s2

    Units: ???


Kinetic energy example
Kinetic Energy: Example

  • What is the translational kinetic energy of an automobile with a mass of 1X103 kg traveling at a speed of 65 miles per hour (29 m/sec)?

  • Need: TKE of the vehicle

  • Know: Mass: 1X103 kg, speed: 29 m/sec

  • How: TKE= ½mv2

  • SOLVE: TKE = 4.2 x 105 J

Anything that has mass and is moving in a line has TKE.


Gravitational potential energy
Gravitational Potential Energy

  • GPE is the energy acquired by an object by virtue of its position in a gravitational field-- typically by being raised above the surface of the Earth.

    • In SI, GPE = mgh in units of joules

  • In Engineering English units,

    • GPE = mgh/gc  in units of ft.lbf


Gpe power example
GPE & Power: Example

  • A person takes 2.0 seconds to lift a 1. kg book a height of 1. meter above the surface of Earth. Calculate the power expended by that person or calculate the energy spent by the person per unit time.

    • Work done =Force x distance = mgx h = 1. x 1. x 9.81 [kg][m/s2][m] = 9.81 [J][m] = 1. x 101 J

    • Power expended = Work done/time = 1. x 101/2.0 [J/s] = 5 Watts


Gravitational potential energy1
Gravitational Potential Energy

  • Mt. Everest is 29, 035 ft high. If a climber has to haul him/herself weighing 200. lbm (including equipment) to the top, what is his/her potential energy above sea level when on the summit. Give your answer in both in joules and in ft.lbf.


Gravitational potential energy2
Gravitational Potential Energy

  • Need: GPE in English and SI units

  • Know:

    • m = 200. lbm = 90.7 kg (“Convert”); h = 29, 035 ft. = 8850. m (“Convert”); g = 32.2 ft/s2 = 9.81 m/s2 & gc = 32.2 lbm ft/s2 lbf (English) and gc = 1 [0] in SI

  • How: GPE = mgh/gc  English

    GPE = mgh SI


Gravitational potential energy3
Gravitational Potential Energy

  • Solve: English … GPE = mgh/gc

    = 200.  32.2  29,035/32.2 [lbm][ft/s2][ft][lbf.s2 /lbm.ft]

    = 5.81  106 ft.lbf (3 significant figures)

  • SI … GPE = mgh

    = 90.7  9.81  8850. = 7.87  106 J

  • A check direct from the units converter: 5.81  106 ft.lbf = 7.88  106 J …OK


Potential energy
Potential Energy

  • GPE is NOT the only form of PE.

    • Chemical, nuclear and electromagnetic are other forms of PE

    • For us, chemical and electrical energy are so important that we will reserve extra chapters and lectures to them for later presentation.


Thermal energy
Thermal Energy

  • Thermal energy, often referred to as heat,is a very special form of kinetic energy because it is the random motion of trillions and trillions of atoms and molecules that leads to the perception of temperature

    • All higher forms of energy dissipate to thermal energy, the ultimate energy sink.

    • The laws of thermodynamics state 1) all energy is conserved and 2) that the thermal energy in the universe, corrected for temperature, always increases.


Energy3
Energy

  • We have defined energy is the capability to do work

    • But energy comes in different guises

      • Potential, translational kinetic, rotational kinetic, thermal and others

    • Energy can be converted from one form to another

      • The energy in the Universe is conserved

      • A “control volume” is a subset of the Universe you construct to isolate the problem of interest. It exchanges energy with the rest of the Universe


Energy conservation

: Energy exchanges

: Energy exchanges

“The Universe”

“The Universe”

System

System

¹

¹

System energy changes

System energy changes

0

0

Universe energy changes = 0

Universe energy changes = 0

Energy Conservation

  • Energy = F distance is generic equation for energy

  • Energy is conserved (although it may change form)

Example of a book lying on a table and then falling on ground


Energy conservation1

C.V. boundary

C.V. boundary

This class room

This class room

Insulated walls

Insulated walls

Door

Door

Control volume

Control volume

example

example

Energy Conservation

  • Example of a control volume

  • The energy in the room is constant unless we allow exchange with the Universe

    • E.g., a person could walk through the door and add energy

    • A heating duct could also add thermal energy

    • On a winter day, a window could break and the c.v. would lose thermal energy


Application of control volumes
Application of Control Volumes

  • The TKE of the vehicle, RKE of the wheels, electrical energy in the lights, thermal energy lost from the radiator, etc.

    • We deduce that the source of all these energies is exactly equal to the loss in chemical (potential) energy in the fuel.


Summary energy
Summary: Energy

  • We specifically identified gravitational, potential, and thermal energy

  • We learned that energy is conserved in the Universe, but not necessarily in a control volume.

    • Deficiencies within a control volume mean that energy in leaking in or out of the control volume at an exactly compensating amount.