Why did the Europeans go exploring? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Why did the Europeans go exploring?

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Why did the Europeans go exploring?
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Why did the Europeans go exploring?

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  1. Why did the Europeans go exploring? • GOLD • New trade routes opened up new opportunities for wealth • GOD • Missionaries spread Christianity • GLORY • Explorers considered heroes; countries competed for colonies

  2. The Crusades • Military expeditions sent by Catholic church to capture the Holy Land from Muslim Turks • Not successful, but few positive results: -Europeans learned how to draw better maps and build better ships -Exposed Europeans to spices and goods from the East

  3. Trade Routes • 1400’s - major trade routes from the east to Europe went through 2 Italian cities : Venice and Genoa • Italian merchants marked up prices on goods and sold them throughout Europe • Other European countries resented the huge profits made by the Italians and began to look for other trade routes to the East…

  4. Europeans created new trade routes to bring products from Europe to India, Asia, and the Spice Islands • Portugal, Spain, England, and France expanded their expires because of their involvement with trade

  5. Portugal’s Empire • 15th century – led world in sea exploration, explored west coast of Africa • Portuguese wanted to find trade route around Africa to Asia • Could make more money if they could get Asian goods for a cheaper price • Wanted to spread Christianity along Africa’s west coast

  6. Prince Henry the Navigator • Son of a Portuguese king • Sent more than 50 expeditions south along the west coast of Africa • Wanted to establish Portuguese colonies and break Muslim hold on trade routes • Created naval observatory that taught navigation, astronomy, and cartography

  7. Prince Henry the Navigator

  8. Prince Henry the Navigator • Unable to make money trading gold, so he tried creating sugar plantations • Sugar cane – very profitable crop, but very labor intensive • So, Prince Henry imported slaves from Africa to work the fields • Encouraged a slave trade that lasted another 400 years.

  9. Portugal’s Empire • For the next 300 years, Portuguese sailors continued to explore east Africa • Established forts and trading posts • By 1571, a string of outposts connected Portugal to Africa, India, the South Pacific Islands, & Japan • Portugal grew very wealthy, Brazil was the most profitable colony

  10. Spain’s Empire • Spanish explorers were searching for a trade route through or around North and South America to Asia • Wanted a quicker route to gold and spices in Asia

  11. Christopher Columbus • An Italian • Given ships & sailors by the Spanish monarchy in the 1490’s • King and Queen wanted him to find a quick route through the Atlantic Ocean to Asia • He discovered the Bahamas, but thought he was in Asia, named them the “East Indies” • Actually discovered 2 new continents that brought great wealth to Spain

  12. Spain’s Empire • Huge empire that spanned the globe • Spanish conquistadors conquered Inca and Aztec civilizations in the 1500’s -Looking for gold & spices -Used missionaries to convert natives to Christianity • Claimed huge areas in North and South America and ruled them for 300 years

  13. England’s Empire • England used to be one of three countries (England, Scotland, and Wales) • In the 1700’s, the three united and became Great Britain • British empire was largest in history • At its peak, Great Britain controlled: Canada, Australia, India, much of Africa, and numerous islands

  14. England’s Empire • North America came under British control in the 1700’s • Lost American colonies in 1776 • Maintained control of Canada until 20th century • Great Britain colonized Australia in 1788 • Used it as a penal (prison) colony to relieve overcrowded jails in England

  15. France’s Empire • French possessed colonies around the world from 1600 to 1900 • Also dominated much of the European continent • By 1812, France controlled much of Germany, Italy, and France

  16. France’s Empire • Established other colonies in the 16th- 17th centuries: • Islands in the Caribbean • Islands in the Indian Ocean, • Islands in the South Pacific, the North Pacific, & the North Atlantic • Colonies in Canada, South America, Southeast Asia, & Northwest Africa