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Early World History Indo-Europeans to the Middle Ages Indo-European Invasions Triggered by Flooding of Black Sea 5600 B.C. Indo-European Invasions Indo-Europeans Indo-Europeans (Aryan language) Nomadic tribes From Steppes of Asia Herders and Grazers Warfare using horses

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early world history

Early World History

Indo-Europeans to the Middle Ages

indo european invasions
Indo-European Invasions

Triggered by Flooding of Black Sea 5600 B.C.

indo europeans
Indo-Europeans
  • Indo-Europeans (Aryan language)
    • Nomadic tribes
    • From Steppes of Asia
    • Herders and Grazers
    • Warfare using horses
    • Swept into Old Europe, Middle East, India

starting about 5,000 BC

Hittites

indo europeans5
Indo-Europeans
  • Religion of war and male domination
    • Male gods of sky, thunder, war and mountains
  • Warrior Priests
  • Imposed ideology
    • Male dominance
    • Hierarchy

Thor

indo european conquerers
Indo-European Conquerers
  • Aryans in India
  • Hittites and Mittani in the Fertile Crescent
  • Luians in Anatolia (Turkey)
  • Kurgans in eastern Europe
    • Battle-Axe People
  • Achaeans, Dorians in Greece
language family tree
Language Family Tree

thebrain.mcgill.ca/.../i_10_s_lan_1b.jpg

before indo europeans
Before Indo -Europeans
  • Sedentary agrarian society
  • Fertility and nature worshiped
  • Goddess gave birth to
    • World
    • Agriculture
  • Priests male and female
  • Women’s status similar to men’s
    • Graves equal

Fertility Figurine

after indo europeans
After Indo-Europeans
  • Herding introduced
  • Warfare, war culture dominates
  • Fortifications built
  • Male War Gods worshiped
    • Male dominated society, religion
  • Goddess loses status
    • Killed or raped by male god
    • Becomes consort of male god
    • Becomes goddess of war
  • Women lose status in society
    • Owned by fathers then husbands
    • Graves unequal
early civilizations12
Early Civilizations
  • City states
  • Elites
  • Religion
  • Crop domestication
  • Animal agriculture
  • Trade
  • Metallurgy
  • Population explosion

Bronze Age weapons

mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
  • Flooding of Tigris and Euphrates fertilized soil
  • Irrigation, drainage produced early abundance
  • Competition and warfare between city states:
    • Ur
    • Uruk
    • Nippur
    • Babylon
    • Kish
    • Nineveh
    • Assur, etc.

Fertile Crescent

mesopotamia14
Mesopotamia
  • Over-salinization reduced wheat productivity in south by 2,000 B.C.:
    • political power shifted north
  • Eventual large scale ecological destruction
    • Fields and pastures worked until barren
    • Forests destroyed for
      • Fuel
      • ship building
egypt
Egypt
  • Relative geographical isolation: strong central government, religion
  • Unification of North and South Nile by 3,500 B.C.
  • 2,000 year dynasty ended in Persian conquest 500 B.C.
egypt16
Egypt
  • Yearly flooding of Nile fertilized soil.
  • Irrigation, drainage controlled by Pharaoh
  • Abundant crops: wheat.
    • Later would be conquered for its productivity
indus valley civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
  • Arose 3000 BC
  • Contemporary of Egypt, Mesopotamia
  • Lasted longer
    • 1500 years
  • Conquered by Aryans from north
aryan invasion of india
Aryan Invasion of India
  • Aryans invaded 1750 BC
  • Indus, then Ganges valleys
  • Horse and herding culture
  • Vedas and Caste system
    • Foundation of Hinduism
  • Feudal Kingdoms spread through India
    • ruled by Brahmins (Priests)
assyrian war bulletin 1000 b c
Assyrian War Bulletin (1000 B.C.)
  • “Asshur my Lord commanded me to go forth…I covered the regions of Saraush and of Ammaush with ruins…I proved myself against their armies at the mountain of Aruma, I chastised them, I strawed the earth with their bodies as they had been beasts of the field; I took their cities in possession, I carried away their gods, I led them away captive, them and their goods and their treasures;
assyrian war bulletin
Assyrian War Bulletin
  • “I burned the cities with fire, I destroyed them, I made them even with the ground, I made of them heaps and a desolation; I laid upon them the grievous yoke of my dominion, and in their presence I gave thanks unto Asshur my Lord.”
  • “I slew two hundred and sixty fighting men; I cut off their heads and made pyramids thereof. I slew one of every two.”
assyrian war bulletin22
Assyrian War Bulletin
  • “I built a wall before the great gates of the city; I flayed the chief men of the rebels, and I covered the wall with their skins. Some of them were enclosed alive in the bricks of the wall, some of them were crucified on stakes along the wall; I caused a great multitude of them to be flayed in my presence, and I covered the wall with their skins. I gathered together the heads in the form of crowns, and their pierced bodies in the form of garlands.”
biblical warfare
Biblical Warfare
  • Saul instructed by God to destroy the Amelekites (1000 B.C.):

“Spare no one; put them all to death, men and women, children and babes in arms, herds and flocks, camels and asses.”

-- I Samuel 15:3

greek influence
Greek Influence
  • Alexander the Great conquered the Achaemenid Persian Empire 323 B.C.
  • Introduced Hellenistic culture to the mideast
  • Maintained by subsequent Greek rulers until 130 B. C.
  • Greeks colonized southern Italy and Sicily for grain growing
roman empire
Roman Empire
  • Romans conquered Italy and Sicily,
  • Romans then conquered the entire Greek world (except for Persia):
    • Asia Minor
    • Mesopotamia
    • Egypt
    • Much of Europe
roman empire wheat empire
Roman Empire: Wheat Empire
  • Roman empire dependent on wheat to feed soldiers, populace of Rome
  • Roman forts were granaries designed to hold a year supply of wheat in case of siege
    • Soldier’s rations were 3 pounds of wheat a day.
    • Barley was punishment rations
  • The Roman garrison in Britain consumed 1,277.5 tons of grain/yr
    • Much of it was brought by ship from supply depots

Roman Fort

trade routes of first century a d
Trade Routes of First Century A.D.
  • Persians never conquered by Romans
  • Persians established silk trading routes to China
roman trade
Roman Trade
  • A fleet of specialized grain carriers was used to import wheat from Egypt to Rome
    • Huge food giveaway program for citizens
  • Romans depleted their treasury importing luxury items and spices from India
    • Could no longer support food giveaways or army
    • Led to collapse of Empire in West
roman inheritance
Roman Inheritance
  • Romans inherited 3000 years of Mid East Culture:
    • Writing
    • Art
    • Math
    • Science
    • Agriculture
    • Religion
  • Romans passed this culture on to Europe
shang dynasty in china
Shang Dynasty in China
  • 1700-1000 BC
  • First Chinese dynasty
  • Yellow River Basin
zhou dynasty in china
Zhou Dynasty in China
  • 1000-221 BC
  • Yellow and Yangtze river basins
  • Great Wall started in north
ch in dynasty
Ch’in Dynasty
  • 221-206 BC
  • Warring states of China united
  • Includes Yellow, Yangtze, and Xi River Basins
han dynasty
Han Dynasty
  • 206 BC-220 AD
  • Western expansion opens Silk road
  • Southward expansion for rice production
  • Central control of dams, canals, irrigation
t ang dynasty
T’ang Dynasty
  • 580-907 AD
  • Grand Canal Opened
    • Links Yellow and Yangtze river basins
    • 1100 miles long
arab empire
Arab Empire
  • Islam swept through Arabia, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia 632-660 A.D.
  • Much of Hellenistic culture of Greeks and Romans lost
  • Islam moved through North Africa, reaching Iberian Peninsula
religions of europe 1100 1200 a d
Religions of Europe: 1100-1200 A.D.
  • Islam was a leader in science, math, and technology
    • Taught Europe during the Middle Ages
  • Christianity in Europe split:
    • Roman Catholic
    • Eastern Orthodox
  • Crusades against Islamic control of Holy Land: 1095-1291 A.D.
mongol empire 1279 1378 a d
Mongol Empire 1279-1378 A.D.
  • Mongols conquered most of Asia
    • China, Central Asia, Persia, to Danube River
  • Great Military Achievement
    • Mobile army on Horseback
  • Trade within China restricted
    • Treasury Depleted
  • Foreign trade welcomed
    • Marco Polo visits China
ottoman empire 1300 1699 a d
Ottoman Empire 1300-1699 A.D.
  • Roman/Byzantine empire in Asia Minor conquered by Ottoman Turks 1176 A.D.
  • Ottoman Empire expanded 1300-1699 A.D.
  • Trade routes to China and India controlled by Islamic/Ottoman rule
  • Forced Europeans to explore alternate routes around Africa
europe 1400 a d
Europe: 1400 A.D.
  • Many warring countries and city states
  • Many languages
  • Culturally unified by Catholic Church
    • Roman Catholic church in West
    • Eastern Orthodox in East
  • Effort to push Moslems out of Iberia
  • Venice a center of trade with Moslems