TQM and Quality Control
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TQM and Quality Control. Quality & Quality Management. What does the term quality mean? - Quality is the ability of a product or service to consistently meet or exceed customer expectations. Quality & Quality Management. Design quality : Inherent value of the product in the marketplace

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Quality quality management
Quality & Quality Management

  • What does the term quality mean?

    - Quality is the ability of a product or service to consistently meet or exceed customer expectations.

Quality quality management1
Quality & Quality Management

  • Design quality: Inherent value of the product in the marketplace

    Dimensions of Quality includes:

    • Performance,

    • Features,

    • Reliability,

    • Durability,

    • Serviceability,

    • Response,

    • Aesthetics, and

    • Reputation.

Quality quality management2
Quality & Quality Management

  • Conformance quality: Degree to which the product or service design specifications are met

  • The Consequences of Poor Quality

    • Loss of business

    • Liability

    • Productivity

    • Costs

Costs of quality

Appraisal Costs

External Failure


Prevention Costs

Internal FailureCosts

Costs of Quality

Costs of


Tqm and quality control

Quality Awards -ISO 9000

Various Quality Awards

1. Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award  -USA

2. Deming Prize - Japan

Quality Certification

  • The ISO 9000 Series Standards

  • ISO

  • ANSI

  • BSI

  • CEN

  • GOST

Iso 9000 series
ISO 9000 Series

ISO 10000 Series

Iso 14000
ISO 14000

  • ISO 14000 - A set of international standards for assessing a company’s environmental performance

  • Standards in three major areas

    • Management systems - Systems development and integration of environmental responsibilities into business planning

    • Operations - Consumption of natural resources and energy

    • Environmental systems - Measuring, assessing and managing emissions, effluents, and other waste

Total quality management tqm
Total Quality Management (TQM)

  • Is a philosophy that involves everyone in an organization in a continual effort to improve quality and achieve customer satisfaction.

Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)

  • is a maintenance program which involves a newly defined concept for maintaining plants and equipment. 

  • One way to think of TPM is "deterioration prevention" and "maintenance reduction", not fixing machines.

  • TPM is a proactive approach that essentially aims to prevent any kind of slack before occurrence.

  • Motto : zero error, zero work-related accident, zero loss.

Tqm and quality control

Elements of TQM

  • Continuous improvement

  • Competitive benchmarking

  • Employee empowerment

  • Team approach

  • Decisions based on facts

  • Knowledge of tools

  • Supplier quality

  • Champion

  • Quality at source

Quality control six sigma quality
Quality ControlSix Sigma Quality

  • A philosophy and set of methods companies use to eliminate defects in their products and processes

  • Six Sigma allows managers to readily describe process performance using a common metric: Defects Per Million Opportunities (DPMO)

Six sigma approach the pdca pdsa cycle




Check /Study

Six Sigma Approach: The PDCA / PDSA Cycle

Six sigma approach dmaic cycle
Six Sigma Approach : DMAIC Cycle

1. Define (D)

Customers and their priorities

  • Overall focus of the methodology is to understand and achieve what the customer wants

2. Measure (M)

Process and its performance

3. Analyze (A)

Causes of defects

4. Improve (I)

Remove causes of defects

5. Control (C)

Maintain quality

Analytical tools for six sigma and continuous improvement
Analytical Tools for Six Sigma and Continuous Improvement

  • Tools

    • There are a number of tools which are used for problem solving and process improvement.

    • But Six Sigma methodology could integrate all those nicely.

  • Eight Tools:

  • Flowcharts

  • Check sheets

  • Histograms

  • Pareto Charts

  • Run charts

  • Cause-and-effect diagrams

  • Opportunities Flow diagrams

  • Control charts

Six sigma roles and responsibilities
Six Sigma Roles and Responsibilities

  • Executive leaders must champion the process of improvement

  • Corporation-wide training in Six Sigma concepts and tools

    • Champion

    • Master Black belt

    • Black belts

    • Green belts

    • Yellow belts

  • Setting stretch objectives for improvement

  • Continuous reinforcement and rewards

Methods for generating ideas
Methods for Generating Ideas

Some additional tools that are useful for process improvement / problem solving are:

  • Brainstorming – Technique for generating a free flow of ideas in a group of people.

  • Quality circles – group of workers who meet to discuss ways of improving products or process.

    • List reduction

    • Balance sheet

    • Paired comparisons

Methods for generating ideas1
Methods for Generating Ideas

  • Interviewing – Technique for identifying problem and collecting information.

  • 5W2H – A method of asking questions about a process that includes what, why, where, when, who, how, and how much.

    • What organization does it the best?

    • How do they do it? and etc.

  • Benchmarking – Process of measuring performance against the best in the same or another industry.

The shingo system fail safe design
The Shingo System: Fail-Safe Design

  • Two aspects reflected

    • Single min exchange of die (SMED)

    • Zero defect : Source inspection & Pokayokes

  • Shingo’s argument:

    • SQC methods do not prevent defects

    • Defects arise when people make errors

    • Defects can be prevented by providing workers with feedback on errors

    • Inspection :Successive Check, Self Check, Source Inspection

  • Poka-Yoke / Fail Safe includes:

    • Checklists

    • Special tooling that prevents workers from making errors

Sources of defects
Sources of Defects

Sources of defects (in order of importance)

  • Omitted processing

  • Processing errors

  • Errors setting up work pieces

  • Missing parts

  • Wrong parts

  • Processing wrong workplace

  • Misoperation

  • Adjustment error

  • Equipment not set up properly

  • Tools and jigs improperly prepared