Total Quality Management (TQM). Dr. Gene Fliedner Decision and Information Sciences School of Business Administration Oakland University. TQM. Quality: a powerful competitive weapon Importance evidenced by variety of industrial awards (e.g., Baldrige Award, Deming Prize)
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Dr. Gene Fliedner
Decision and Information Sciences
School of Business Administration
a. Internal: Engaged employees(an understanding of their importance and a demonstration of this through practices such as participative management and teamwork)
(1) Quality at the Source (empowered employees)
(2) Employee skills: education, training (tool kits), standardized thinking
(3) Technology and tools
(4) Quality Circles
b. External customers: consumers, customers, vendors
(1) Quality Function Deployment (QFD)
(2) Conformance to specifications
(3) Engaging suppliers and managing the supply chain quality
(3) Process Mapping (flow charting); example follows
(4) Pareto Analysis and Histograms; example follows
(5) Cause-and-Effect Diagrams (a.k.a., Ishikawa diagram, 4M diagram, fishbone diagram) ; example follows
(6) Check Sheets (checklists); example follows
(7) Scatter Diagrams ; example follows
(1) Control charts: used for higher volume, repetitive processes
(2) Acceptance plans: used for lower volume, batch processes
Different shapes represent different types of process flow tasks, e.g., rectangle represents a task while triangle represents assessment.
Diagram to left is an example of an “engineering” process map.
There is also a “flow” process map that depicts items in 1 of 5 states during flow: (1) in process, (2) being moved, (3) being stored or in inventory, (4) waiting to be moved, or (5) in inspection.
a. Variable (continuous)
b. Attribute (0-1)
b. UCL and LCL = np+ Z np(1-p)
b. UCL and LCL = c +Z√c
b. UCL and LCL = u +Z√u/N
AOQ = (Pac)p(N-n/N)