Pathophysiology. ZOOL 3143. Dr. Diane M. Gilmore, O.D. LSE 415 680-8083 email@example.com Web site: www.clt.astate.edu/mgilmore. Office hours:. Monday and Tuesday 1 - 2 p.m. Wednesday Noon - 2 p.m. and 3-4 p.m. And by appointment.
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Pathophysiology ZOOL 3143
Dr. Diane M. Gilmore, O.D. • LSE 415 • 680-8083 • firstname.lastname@example.org • Web site: www.clt.astate.edu/mgilmore
Office hours: • Monday and Tuesday 1 - 2 p.m. • Wednesday Noon - 2 p.m. and 3-4 p.m. • And by appointment
Lecture Text: Essentials of Pathophysiology Concepts of Altered Health States,2nd ed., by Carol Mattson Porth. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, pub.
Cramming is a sure path to failure ! It will blow up in your face!
Study Tips • Use the study guide • Daily quizzes • Understand the material • Read the text • Study frequently for short periods • “Do something” with the material • Find a study buddy
Classroom Etiquette: Turn off pagers and cell phones ! No tobacco use of any kind Be considerate of others: Take out what you bring in. Talk to me, NOT your neighbor! Do not ask for grades over the phone or internet.
Academic Integrity • Use Professional ethics • NO: • Plagiarism • Cheating • Allowing others to copy from you • Penalties can be severe !!
Attendance • Inclement weather • Disability services
Grades: 5 exams + 1 paper + “pop” quizzes and possibly seminars A = 450 - 500 points B = 400 - 449 points C = 350 - 399 points D = 300 - 349 points F = less than 300 pointsFinal exam Tuesday, Dec. 11 at 12:30p.m.
Terminology • Pathology – focus on physical changes in diseased organs and tissues • Pathophysiology – abnormal functioning of diseased organs and how it applies to medical treatment and patient care
Disease – loss of homeostasis, or when physical or mental capacities cannot be fully utilized (interuption, cessation or disorder in the function of an organ or system). Etiology = cause of the disease When the etiology is unknown, the disease is said to be idiopathic.
Categories of etiology • Genetic disease– genes are responsible for a structural or functional defect • Congenital disease– genetic information is intact, but the intrauterine environment interferes with normal development • Acquired disease – disease is caused by factors encountered after birth (biological agents, physical forces, and chemical agents)
Clinical manifestations – indications that the person is sick Symptoms – unobservable effects of a disease reported by the patient Signs – observable or measurable traits Syndrome - a characteristic combination of signs and symptoms associated with a particular disease.
Pathogenesis - sequence of events in the of development of a disease Sequelae – lesions or impairments resulting from a disease Acute conditions – rapid onset, develop quickly, usually of short duration Chronic conditions – longer duration onset may be sudden or insidious
Distribution of lesions may be: Local – confined to one area of the body Systemic – widely distributed throughout the body Within an organ damage can be: Focal if there are only one or more distinct sites of damage Diffuse if the damage is uniformly distributed
Diagnosis – identification of the specific disease Therapy – the treatment of the disease to either effect a cure or reduce the patient’s signs and symptoms Prognosis – prediction of a disease’s outcome
Boundary – Cell membrane(plasma membrane) Composed of lipid molecules in bilayer Phospholipids have hydrophobic tail Phospholipids have hydrophilic heads Also contains embedded proteins proteins are important for cell-cell communication: receptors for hormones cell recognition also important for metabolic processes inside the cell: channels pumps enzymes
Cytoplasm Cytosol – aqueous gel-like medium Important metabolic processes occur here Organelles – membrane bound structures Membranes provide compartments for separation of chemical reactions
Vesicles “sacs” that hold molecules within a cell lysosomes –digestive enzymes molecules to be exported
Inclusions Temporary structures • ribosomes • filaments – cytoskeleton – protein strands • other molecules without membranes: • melanin • lipids, etc.
Tissues Made up of cells with common function Four major tissue types: 1. Epithelial covering and lining interacts with the body’s environment glandular tissue
2. Connective tissue Important to structure , support and protection 3. Nervous tissue Made up of neurons and supporting (glial) cells receives info from outside (or inside) the body processes information acts on the information through muscles, glands, etc.
Muscle • Important to movement • Three types • Skeletal • Smooth • Cardiac
Cells change to adapt to their environment • Atrophy = shrinkage = decrease in cell size. • Due to : • decreased use • decreased blood supply • decreased nutrition • Of tissues or organs may be due to • cell shrinkage or due to cell death.
Hypertrophy = increase in cell size We'll see this in heart, kidney (and others) w/ pathology NOT due to increased cell volume or fluid Rather, due to increased protein synthesis within the cell, or decreased protein breakdown Result is increased protein in organelles Hyperplasia = increase in cell number Due to increased cell division Uterus and breast tissue Parathyroid gland in kidney failure Liver (compensatory hyperplasia)
Metaplasia = replacement of one cell type with another • Reversible • An example: ciliated columnar epithelium replaced by • stratified squamous epithelium
Dysplasia = change in cell resulting in abnormal cell size, shape or organization • We'll see this in respiratory tract, cervix w/ pathology • In mature cells only • Immature cells would be expected to change in size, shape as they grow and mature • Considered a reversible change • Neoplasia = associated with a malignant tumor
Intracellular accumulations • Buildup of substances the cell can’t use or dispose of. • Normal body substances • Abnormal products from inside the body (inborn errors of metabolism) • Substances from outside the body (transient or permanent)
Cellular injury – cell unable to maintain homeostasis • Causes of cell injury: • Deficiency – lack of a substance necessary to the cell • Intoxication or poisoning – presence of a toxin or substance that interferes with cell functioning • Trauma – physical injury and loss of cell’s structural integrity
Deficiencies: Deficiency in oxygen most important
Hypoxia = deficiency in oxygen at cell Due to : Decreased oxygen in air Decreased hemoglobin or decreased oxygen transported to cells Diseases of the respiratory and/or cardiovascular system
Important to cell because of oxidative phosphorylation, which results in the production of ATP Oxidative: need oxygen to produce ATP ATP: needed by cell for metabolism, cell life