FORECASTING AND DEMAND PLANNING

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FORECASTING AND DEMAND PLANNING. CHAPTER 11. DAVID A. COLLIER AND JAMES R. EVANS. 11-1 Describe the importance of forecasting to the value chain. 11-2 Explain basic concepts of forecasting and time series. 11-3 Explain how to apply simple moving average and exponential smoothing models.

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FORECASTING AND DEMAND PLANNING

CHAPTER 11

DAVID A. COLLIER AND JAMES R. EVANS

11-2Explain basic concepts of forecasting and time series.

11-3Explain how to apply simple moving average and exponential smoothing models.

11-4Describe how to apply regression as a forecasting approach.

11-5 Explain the role of judgment in forecasting.

11-6 Describe how statistical and judgmental forecasting techniques are applied in practice.

he demand for rental cars in Florida and other warm climates peaks during college spring break season. Call centers and rental offices are flooded with customerswanting to rent a vehicle. National Car Rental took a unique approach by developing a customer-identification forecasting model, by which it identifies all customers who are young and rent cars only once or twice a year. These demand analysis models allow National to call this target market segment in February, when call volumes are lower, to sign them up again. The proactive strategy is designed to both boost repeat rentals and smooth out the peaks and valleys in call center volumes.

What do you think?

Think of a pizza delivery franchise located near a college campus. What factors that influence demand do you think should be included in trying to forecast demand for pizzas?

Forecasting and Demand Planning

• Forecastingis the process of projecting the values of one or more variables into the future.
• Types of forecasts:
• Long-range forecasts in total sales dollars (top management level)
• Aggregate forecasts of sales volume (middle management level)
• Forecasts of individual units (operational level)

Basic Concepts in Forecasting

• The planning horizonis the length of time on which a forecast is based.
• This spans from short-range forecasts with a planning horizon of under 3 months to long-range forecasts of 1 to 10 years.
• The time bucket is the unit of measure for the time period used in a forecast.

Basic Concepts in Forecasting

• A time seriesis a set of observations measured at successive points in time or over successive periods of time.
• A time series pattern may have one or more of the following five characteristics:
• Trend
• Seasonal patterns
• Cyclical patterns
• Random variation (or noise)
• Irregular (one time) variation

Basic Concepts in Forecasting

• A trend is the underlying pattern of growth or decline in a time series.
• Seasonal patterns are characterized by repeatable periods of ups and downs over short periods of time.
• Cyclical patterns are regular patterns in a data series that take place over longer periods of time.
• Random variation (sometimes called noise) is the unexplained deviation of a time series from a predictable pattern, such as a trend, seasonal, or cyclical pattern.
• Irregular variation is a one-time variation that is explainable

Exhibit Extra

Trend and Business Cycle Characteristics (each data point is 1 year apart)

Exhibit 11.4

Call Center Volume

Example of a time series with trend and seasonal components

Exhibit11.5

Chart of Call Volume

Σ(At – Ft )2

[11.1]

MSE =

T

Σ׀(At – Ft ) ׀

[11.2]

T

Σ׀(At – Ft )/At ׀

[11.3]

MAPE =

T

• Basic Concepts in Forecasting
• Forecast erroris the difference between the observed value of the time series and the forecast, orAt – Ft.
• Mean Square Error (MSE)
• Mean Absolute Deviation Error (MAD)
• Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE)

X 100

Basic Concepts in Forecasting

• MSE is influenced much more by large forecasts errors than by small errors (because the errors are squared).
• The measurement scale factor in MAPE is eliminated by dividing the absolute error by the time-series data value, making it easier to interpret.
• The selection of the best measure of forecast accuracy is not a simple matter; indeed, forecasting experts often disagree on which measure should be used.

Statistical Forecasting Models

• Statistical forecastingis based on the assumption that the future will be an extrapolation of the past.
• Judgmental forecastingrelies upon opinions and expertise of people in developing forecasts.

Single Moving Average

• A moving average (MA)forecast is an average of the most recent “k” observations in a time series.
• Ft+1 = ∑(most recent “k” observations)/k = (At + At–1 + At–2 1 ... 1 At–k+1)/k [11.4]
• MA methods work best for short planning horizons when there is no major trend, seasonal, or business cycle pattern.
• As the value of “k” increases, the forecast reacts slowly to recent changes in the time series data.

SolvedProblem

Develop three-period and four-period moving-average forecasts and single exponential smoothing forecasts with α= 0.5. Compute the MAD, MAPE, and MSE for each. Which method provides a better forecast?

SolvedProblem

Using the Excel Moving Average and Exponential

Smoothing templates, we find that the MSE for a

three-period moving average is 5.98, the MSE for a

four-period moving average is 6.21, and the MSE for

the exponential-smoothing model is 9.65.

Based on these error metrics (MAD, MSE, MAPE), the 3-month moving average is the best method among the three.

Single Exponential Smoothing

Single Exponential Smoothing (SES)is a forecasting technique that uses a weighted average of past time-series values to forecast the value of the time series in the next period.

Ft+1 = At + (1 – )Ft = Ft +  (At – Ft) [11.5]

Exhibit 11.9 Summary of Single Exponential Smoothing Milk-Sales Forecasts with

α = 0.2

Regression as a Forecasting Approach

• Regression analysisis a method for building a statistical model that defines a relationship between a single dependent variable and one or more independent variables, all of which are numerical.
• Yt = a + bt (11.7)
• Simple linear regression finds the best values of a and b using the method of least squares.
• Excel provides a very simple tool to find the best-fitting regression model for a time series by selecting the Add Trendline option from the Chartmenu.

Causal Forecasting with Multiple Regression

• A linear regression model with more than one independent variable is called a multiple linear regression model.
• Multiple regression models can include other independent variables such as economic indexes or demographic factors that may influence the time series.

Gasoline Sales Data

Exhibit 11.14

Exhibit 11.15

Chart of Sales versus Time

Judgmental Forecasting

• Judgmental forecasting relies upon opinions and expertise of people in developing forecasts.
• Grass Roots forecasting is simply asking those who are close to the end consumer, such as salespeople, about the customers’ purchasing plans.
• The Delphi method consists of forecasting by expert opinion by gathering judgments and opinions of key personnel based on their experience and knowledge of the situation.

Forecasting in Practice

• Managers use a variety of judgmental and quantitative forecasting techniques.
• Statistical methods alone cannot account for such factors as sales promotions, competitive strategies, unusual economic disturbances, new products, large one-time orders, labor complications, etc.
• Statistical forecasts are often adjusted to account for qualitative factors.

A tracking signal provides a method for monitoring a forecast by quantifying bias—the tendency of forecasts to consistently be larger or smaller than the actual values of the time series.

Tracking signal = Σ(At – Ft)/MAD [11.8]

Tracking signals between plus and minus 4 indicate an adequate forecasting model.

Forecasting in Practice
BankUSA: Forecasting Help Desk Demand by Day Case Study

1. What are the service management characteristics of the CSR job?

2. Define the mission statement and strategy of the Help Desk contact center. Why is the Help Desk important? Who are its customers?

3. How would you handle the customer affected by the inaccurate stock price in the banks trust account system? Would you take a passive or proactive approach? Justify your answer.

4. Using the data on Call Volume in the accompanying table, how would you forecast short-term demand?

• What are the service management characteristics of the CSR job?
• Define the mission statement and strategy of the Help Desk. Why is the Help Desk important? Who are its customers?
• How would you handle the customer affected by the inaccurate stock price in the bank’s trust account system? Would you take a possive or proactive approach? Justify your answer.
• Using the data on call volume at right, how would you forecast short-term demand?