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e-Science, the Grid and… will they change research?!. Prof. Paul Jeffreys Director Oxford e-Science Centre http://e-science.ox.ac.uk/ Professorial Fellow, Keble College paul.jeffreys@oucs.ox.ac.uk. Introduction. There is an activity which:-

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e science the grid and will they change research

e-Science, the Grid and…will they change research?!

Prof. Paul Jeffreys

Director Oxford e-Science Centre

http://e-science.ox.ac.uk/

Professorial Fellow, Keble College

paul.jeffreys@oucs.ox.ac.uk

1

introduction
Introduction
  • There is an activity which:-
    • Tony Blair (and many other leaders!) has (have) enthused about
    • The UK Office of Science and Technology has invested £0.25b
    • The investment of public funds is estimated to be at least € 2b
    • Has resulted in world-leading new research
    • Addresses issues in the Lambert Review of Business-University Collaboration
      • (http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/consultations_and_legislation /lambert/consult_lambert_index.cfm)
    • and .. if you believe the previous Director General of the Research Councils..
      • “will change the dynamic of the way science is undertaken"

2

talk outline
Talk Outline
  • Preliminaries and definitions
    • Example
  • UK e-Science and the Grid
    • International developments
  • Overview of e-Science in Oxford
  • Future vision for e-Research
    • Change way research is done
    • Component of Information Society

3

front page ft 7th mar 2000
Front page FT, 7th Mar 2000

“‘The Grid’, as it is provisionally known, will work far more quickly and reliably than today’s internet. It should eventually enable computer users to receive exactly the information they want from anywhere in the world within seconds – and without having to go through a tortuous search process.”

5

blair s speech on british science
Blair’s speech on British Science
  • http://politics.guardian.co.uk/speeches/story/0,11126,721029,00.html

“It's significant that the UK is the first country to develop a national e-Science grid, which intends to make access to computing power, scientific data repositories and experimental facilities as easy as the web makes access to information. One of the pilot e-science projects is to develop a digital mammographic archive, together with an intelligent medical decision support system for breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. An individual hospital will not have supercomputing facilities, but through the grid it could buy the time it needs.”

PM Tony Blair, July 2002

6

what is the grid
What is the Grid?
  • “… a software infrastructure that enables flexible, secure, coordinated resource sharing among dynamic collections of individuals, institutions and resources”

[The Grid, eds. Foster & Kesselman]

  • “an emergent infrastructure capable of delivering dependable, pervasive and uniform access to a set of globally distributed, dynamic and heterogeneous resources. It brings challenges of scalability, interoperability, fault tolerance, resource management and security”

[Tony Hey]

7

e science
e-Science
  • John Taylor, previous Director General of the Research Councils, OST
    • is about research increasingly done through distributed global collaborations enabled by the Internet (e.g. human genome program, LHC/CERN)
    • uses very large data collections, terascale computing resources,high performance visualisation
    • and col-laboratories – support for trusting teams

e-Science will change the dynamics of how research is done

8

a definition of e research
A Definition of e-Research

‘e-Research is about global collaboration in key research areas, and the next generation of infrastructure that will enable it.’

9

behind the wall in front of the wall through the wall
“Behind the Wall”, “In Front of the Wall”, “Through the Wall”

“Behind the wall” “In front of the wall”

InformationUsers

Utility - people

- resources - devices

- compute

- data

- comms

“Through the Wall” Col-laboration & interaction between people

10

behind the wall today many bits of walls ad hoc client server
“Behind The Wall”: today - many “bits of walls”, ad hoc Client-Server

HPC

Experiment

Storage

Analysis

HPC

Experiment

Computing

Storage

Analysis

HPC

Scientist

11

behind the wall next generation information utilities and col laboratories
“Behind The Wall”: next generation-InformationUtilities and col-laboratories

Experiment

Analysis

Computing

Storage

Storage

Experiment

Analysis

Computing

Storage

Computing

MIDLEWARE

Scientist

GRID

Scientist

Scientist

12

breast cancer facts
Breast cancer facts
  • 10% of Western women develop breast cancer
  • 19% cancer deaths, 24% cancer cases
  • 500,000 cases annually in EC and USA
  • early diagnosis massively improves prognosis
    • screening programs, eg in UK 3 million mammograms per year
    • 55 million mammograms per year world wide
  • 20% cancers are missed by radiologists at screening
  • 70-80% biopsies turn out to be benign
  • 30% inter- and intra-radiologist variability
  • 22% of films are “lost” between visits
  • 5% of images need to be re-taken
  • a 1cm tumor has typically been in the body for 6-8 years
uk breast screening today
UK Breast Screening – Today

Began in 1988

Women 50-64

Screened

Every 3 Years

1 View/Breast

Scotland,

Wales,

Northern Ireland

England

(8 Regions)

92 Breast

Screening

Centres

Each centre sees

5K-20K images/yr

Paper

Film

1.5M - Screened in 2001-02

65,000 - Recalled for Assessment

8,545 – Cancers detected

300 - Lives per year Saved

230 – Radiologists “Double Reading”

Statistics from NHS Cancer Screening web site

uk breast screening challenges
UK Breast Screening – Challenges

Women 50-70

Screened

Every 3 Years

2 Views/Breast

+ Demographic

Increase

Scotland,

Wales,

Northern Ireland

England

(8 Regions)

92 Breast

Screening

Programmes

Up to 50K/yr per

centre

Digital

Digital

2,000,000 - Screened every Year

120,000 - Recalled for Assessment

10,000 - Cancers

1,250 - Lives Saved

230 - Radiologists “double Reading”

50% - Workload Increase

slide18

eDiamond aims

  • construct a federated database of mammograms
  • contribute to Grid middleware development
  • contribute to HealthGrid development in UK, Europe
  • aims to support the UK Breast Screening Program

Novel image analysis, federation of large data sets owned by hospitals, and levels of access to that data

slide19

end-user project goals

  • Teaching tool for radiologists, radiographers
    • St George’s Hospital
  • Tele-diagnosis
    • Edinburgh Breast Screening Unit, W. of Scotland
  • Algorithm development: data mining
    • Oxford Radcliffe Breast Care Unit
  • Epidemiology
    • Guy’s Hospital, London
  • Quality control
    • Oxford Medical Vision Laboratory

Clinicians want to use the Grid & they profoundly wish to remain ignorant about how it works

slide20

For several years, I had wanted to find a way to gain the statistical power I needed for medical image analysis – the Grid offers the potential to provide it!

And, not just for medical image analysis …

Why is the Grid needed?

  • mammograms are typical of medical images
    • many parameters (potentially) of interest
    • relatively few images gathered at each individual centre
  • insufficient statistical power in the database garnered from a small number of centres
  • The Grid provides the statistical power at acceptable bandwidth and with guarantees on secure image/data transmission
slide21

The Grid is for all of scholarship

  • Specialised image corpora & knowledge are widely dispersed through the world
  • The humanities have much to teach science about curation of large datasets, ontology development, and development of metadata
slide22
UK e-Science Programme &

International Developments

22

slide23

SR2000 e-Science Allocation

DG Research Councils

Grid TAG

E-Science

Steering Committee

Director

Director’s

Management Role

Director’s

Awareness and Co-ordination Role

Generic Challenges

EPSRC (£15m), DTI (£15m)

Academic Application Support

Programme

Research Councils (£74m), DTI (£5m)

PPARC (£26m)

BBSRC (£8m)

MRC (£8m)

NERC (£7m)

ESRC (£3m)

EPSRC (£17m)

CLRC (£5m)

£80m Collaborative projects

Industrial Collaboration (£40m)

23

sr2000 sr2002 e science funding
SR2000+SR2002 e-Science Funding

Total for e-Science from Spending Reviews

£M 2001/2 2002/3 2003/4 2004/5 2005/6 TOTAL

MRC 1.0 2.0 5.0 6.9 6.2 21.1

BBSRC 1.0 2.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 18.0

NERC 1.0 2.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 15.0

EPSRC 6.0 13.0 22.0 17.2 19.5 77.7

Of which:-

HPC 0.0 3.0 6.0 0.0 2.5 11.5

Core Prog 3.0 6.0 6.0 8.2 8.0 31.2

PPARC 3.0 8.0 15.0 16.4 15.2 57.6

ESRC 0.0 1.0 2.0 5.5 5.1 13.6

CCLRC 1.0 1.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 10.0

TOTAL 13.0 29.5 55.5 57.5 57.5 213.0

24

uk e science grid
UK e-Science Grid

Edinburgh

Glasgow

DL

Newcastle

Belfast

Manchester

Cambridge

Oxford

Hinxton

RAL

Cardiff

London

Southampton

25

e science centres of excellence
e-Science Centres of Excellence
  • Birmingham/Warwick – Modelling
  • Bristol – Media
  • UCL – Networking
  • White Rose Grid – Leeds, York, Sheffield
  • Lancaster – Social Science
  • Leicester – Astronomy
  • Reading - Environment

26

uk e science grid phase 2
UK e-Science Grid – phase 2

Edinburgh

Glasgow

DL

Newcastle

Belfast

Manchester

Cambridge

Oxford

RL

Hinxton

Cardiff

London

Soton

27

uk e science timeframes
UK e-Science Timeframes

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

SR2000 * * *

SR2002 * * *

SR2004 * * *

SJ5/AAA Service * *

LHC/LCG *

28

particle physics grid
Particle Physics Grid
  • Growing links with Particle Physics Grid
    • Crucially important for next generation of experiments at CERN
    • Huge investment (UK £100+m in capital equipment alone)
    • Oxford - integral part of ‘Southern Tier 2’ in UK particle physics Grid
  • Important factor in development towards national ‘persistent Grid’
    • EGEE instrumental
  • International compatibility
    • PP Grid has to be connected internationally!

29

recent international developments
Recent International Developments
  • Enterprise Grid Alliance:
    • “Leading technology companies today launched the Enterprise Grid Alliance (EGA), a consortium formed to develop enterprise grid solutions and accelerate the deployment of grid computing in enterprises.
    • http://xml.coverpages.org/ni2004-04-20-a.html
    • The EGA consortium has been formed to "encourage and accelerate movement to an open grid environment through interoperability solutions."
    • Companies having representatives on the EGA Board of Directors include EMC, Fujitsu-Siemens, HP, Intel, NEC, Network Appliance, Oracle, and Sun.”
  • “Microsoft, IBM, and BEA Systems have released a trio of proposed Web Services standards to address several unmet requirements to realise the promises of the services-oriented application model.”
    • Will underpin “Grid Services”

30

information based society
Information-based society..
  • e-Research and the Grid are contributors to the Information-based society
    • e-Research/Grid part of the ‘forces driving change’:-
      • UK Grid
      • e-Science projects are stretching the underpinning IT infrastructure
    • e-Research/Grid also part of process of migration to Information Society:-
      • On-Demand resources
      • Integration (especially of databases)
      • Inter-connection or col-laboratories (eg Oxford and Auckland)
    • Irving Wladawsky-Berger:
      • “We see a world where more integration is needed, better management of information, and greater flexibility”
    • Vision applies directly to e-Research;
      • Information Society operating within academic framework…
    • NB e-Research is closely coupled to industry as will be demonstrated!!

31

oxford e science centre
Oxford e-Science Centre
  • Summary:
    • In 2.5 years - grown to significant activity
    • Supports and expands knowledge in, and use of, e-Science/Grid
      • e-Science activities in at least 15 departments
    • Portfolio of exciting research projects
    • Strong contribution to UK e-Science Core Programme
      • Creating persistent, robust and reliable national infrastructure
      • Part of UK national Grid (one of 4 nodes)
    • £20m flowed into and through University
    • Offers e-Science support for region
    • Close relationships with IBM and CCLRC (UK national laboratory)

33

oesc objectives
OeSC ‘Objectives’
  • Establish Oxford as regional centre on UK national Grid
    • Thereby establish Grid connections for our researchers
    • Make our resources available on the Grid
  • Support groups throughout University undertaking national and international e-Science projects (and other Grid activities), and link with companies
    • Provide support infrastructure:- registration, certificate authorisation, training, documentation, security, services
    • Share development, coordinate and optimise across projects
    • Disseminate
  • Commission ‘intranet Grid’
    • Share resources across university
    • 3000 cpus !

34

collaborating ou departments
Collaborating OU Departments
  • Biochemistry
  • Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics
  • Engineering
  • Materials
  • Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics
  • Zoology
  • Physics
  • Oxford Internet Institute
  • Said Business School
  • Begbroke Business Park
  • University Library Services
  • Clinical Trials Unit
  • Pharmacology and NTRAC
  • Departments in Humanities

35

2 crucial e science components
2 Crucial e-Science Components
  • Software Engineering Programme Team

http://www.softeng.ox.ac.uk/

    • Essential contribution to OeSC
    • Contribute five academic staff, plus a number of dedicated researchers, to the e-Science team
    • Expertise in design, requirements, and security
  • Doctoral Training Centre

http://www.stats.ox.ac.uk/~mcvean/DTC.htm

    • Providing training in general research and communication skills is crucial to the future development of interdisciplinary research
    • Opportunity to share much of the training needed for e-Science

36

slide37

IBM

Others..

Southampton

Birkbeck, LRC,

Birmingham, Nottingham,

York

CLRC

Nottingham

Leeds

UCL

Birmingham

Auckland

IBM, Mirada

Cambridge

NTRAC

UCL

Univ. Wales

Manchester

(Singapore)

IBM

St. Georges, Guy's, Churchill, St. Thomas' NHS Trust Hospitals; Breast Screening Centres in Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen Univ.

CLRC

BioSimGrid

NCRI

Tissue Bank

All Universities

in UK PP

Integrative Biology

High Throughput

Structural Biology

e-DiaMoND +

Resource Man.

IBM, Virage, Boxer System Ltd, Square Box Systems, Int DOI

CERN

Grid PP

Tier 2

2 Globus Gatekeepers

- Linux Cluster (Condor)

- Supercomputer

OeSC

http://e-science.ox.ac.uk

Access Grid nodes

JISC testbed cluster

Network Monitoring

L2G/ETF/STF/TAG/GOC/ATF

Video Works

CLRC

CLRC

Oxford Brookes

EDG

CERN

Security + Data Man. EDG

Remote Microscopy

JEOL

MIMAS, Eduserve

DCOCE

Climate Prediction

CLRC

Open University

JISC

Collaborative Visualisation

MIAS-Grid

Geodise

National Cosmos Grid + Rem. Vis.

Dynamic brain Atlas

Dame

Reality Grid

strategic partnership with ibm
Strategic Partnership with IBM
  • Relationship built over many years – now reached new levels
  • Strategic alliance in e-Science with emphasis on Life Sciences
  • Partnership framework signed on 21 January by VC and Director of Hursley
    • “A partnership between IBM and the University of Oxford will create a framework for recognising, consolidating, and sustaining the collaboration that already exists. It will take advantage of emerging opportunities for collaboration across the disciplines, and promote the exchange of ideas, resources, and talent between the two organisations.”
  • University:
    • academic research and scientific vision
  • IBM:
    • expertise in industrial research and development
    • options for deployment and exploitation
  • Built on excellent collaboration forged in e-DiaMoND

38

e research a new paradigm
e-Research – a new paradigm
  • The invention and exploitation of advanced IT
    • to generate, curate and analyse research data
      • From experiments, observations and simulations
      • Quality management, preservation and reliable evidence
    • to develop and explore models and simulations
      • Computation and data at extreme scales
      • Trustworthy, economic, timely and relevant results
    • to enable dynamic distributed virtual organisations
      • Facilitating collaboration with information and resource sharing
      • Security, reliability, accountability, manageability and agility
  • Training and teaching crucially important

40

e research
e-Research
  • Developing e-Research
    • Represents a new academic paradigm
    • Requires a combination of expertise and resources
    • Facilitates world leading research, new opportunities for deployment, exciting partnerships
  • In Oxford – driven as application-led e-Research
    • Embracing computer science and computer services
    • Includes Humanities
  • Blended within University: OeSC, OSC, SEP and DTC
  • Set of skills completed - through partnership with IBM
    • Expertise and resources for the realisation and deployment of designs, on a national, industrial scale
  • e-Research -- an approach which goes beyond existing University structures and discipline boundaries

41

research has it changed
Research – has it changed?
  • e-Science has already changed research in Universities
    • e-DiaMoND, Integrative Biology, …
    • New capabilities to form col-laboratories (eg Oxford-Auckland)
  • But .. e-Science is a path to development of interdisciplinary research
    • Very exciting opportunities
  • Vision for future:-
    • e-Science/e-Research acting as a catalyst for interdisciplinary advancement - underpinned by a new IT infrastructure - facilitating new kinds of research
      • e-Research recognised as an academic pursuit (not just infrastructure)
    • Component of the new Information Society

42

conclusions
Conclusions
  • e-Science activity has grown rapidly
  • e-Research and Grid will continue to grow in importance
  • Flagship projects..
    • e-DiaMoND and many others
      • … demonstrate that research has already changed
  • e-Research is a new paradigm which enriches academia and changes research
    • catalyst for interdisciplinary activities offering new possibilities
  • Relationship with IBM strategic for Oxford University
  • e-Research component of the new Information Society

43