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The Rise of Political Extremism. Problems Mussolini Stalin Franco Hitler Culture. The Search for Stability. League of Nations French Demands Reparations- 132 bil. Marks ($33 bil. US) Unable to pay Ruhr Valley occupation German Inflation Dawes Plan- loans and flexible payments

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the rise of political extremism

The Rise of PoliticalExtremism







the search for stability
The Search for Stability

League of Nations

French Demands

  • Reparations- 132 bil. Marks ($33 bil. US)
  • Unable to pay
  • Ruhr Valley occupation

German Inflation

  • Dawes Plan- loans and flexible payments

Treaty of Locarno

  • Guaranteed Germany’s borders
  • Kellogg-Briand pact- renounced war
the great depression
The Great Depression


  • Individual national economies
  • Farm overproduction
  • US Stock Market
    • Loans to Germany
    • Investment in Europe


  • Unemployment
    • England- 25%
    • Germany- 40%
  • Increase in government involvement in the economy
  • Renewed interest in Marxism
  • Willingness of people to follow leaders who can offer solutions
the rise of dictators
The Rise of Dictators

Totalitarian State- a government that wants to control the political, economic, social, intellectual, and cultural lives of the people

Wanted to conquer the hearts and minds of the people

  • Propaganda
  • Modern communications

Single leader

  • No individual freedom
  • Collective will of the masses
italy benito mussolini il duce
Italy- Benito Mussolini “Il Duce”

Fascism-  a political philosophy, movement, or regime that exalts nation and often race above the individual and that stands for a centralized autocratic government headed by a dictatorial leader, severe economic and social regimentation, and forcible suppression of opposition

  • Opposed communists- “Blackshirts”
  • Patriotic/nationalistic appeal
  • Secret Police- OVRA
  • Women
  • Catholic Church
soviet union joseph stalin
Soviet Union- Joseph Stalin

Power struggle in Politburo

  • Trotsky vs Stalin
  • Industrialization and worldwide communist revolution vs strong socialist state and continuation of Lenin’s New Economic Policy
  • Stalin was general secretary of the Communist Party
    • He used this position to gain complete control
    • Ran out all of the old Bolsheviks including Trotsky
stalin s leadership
Stalin’s Leadership

Five-Year Plans

  • Goals
    • Transform Russia from agricultural to industrial
    • Maximum production of goods
  • Results
    • Huge increase in urban population
    • Very poor conditions
    • Strict laws
  • Collectivization- private farms eliminated; instead, the government owned all of the land while the peasants worked it
stalin s leadership con t
Stalin’s Leadership, con’t

Costs of the Programs

  • 10 million peasants died in famines
    • Stalin allowed workers one small garden to own
  • Strengthened his control
    • People who resisted were sent to forced labor camps
    • Great Purge- eliminated the Old Bolsheviks
      • 8 million Russians arrested

Became leader of the German Workers’ Party

  • Changed the name to National Socialist German Workers’ Party- Nazi for short

Led Beer Hall Putsch- failed

  • In jail, wrote Mein Kampf
    • German nationalism
    • Anti-Semitism
    • Social Darwinism

Achieved power through democracy

Became the biggest party in the Reichstag

Great Depression

  • National pride/honor
  • Traditional militarism

Enabling Act- allowed the gov’t to ignore the constitution for four years to deal with crisis

Hitler as Fuhrer

the nazi state
The Nazi State


Aryan (misused term)

Opposition eliminated

Heinrich Himmler- SS

  • Terror and ideology

Massive rearmament


Women’s roles

Anti-Semitic policies

  • Nuremburg Laws
  • Kristallnacht