What is Exercise? • http://fitnessexercisewellness.wordpress.com/2012/07/20/stress-and-adaptation/ • Exercise is a stress the body has to handle and adapt to • The key to exercise is to work at a level that the body has a difficult time handling but not at a level where the stress and damage to the body is too severe for full recovery between work outs.
What does it mean to stay active? • Staying active means living a lifestyle in which all components of fitness are addressed. • A person’s job, work out routine, chores, or recreational games can cover these components.
What are the components of fitness? • Cardiovascular endurance • Muscular endurance • Muscular strength • Flexibility • Body fat composition
Cardiovascular endurance • This is the body's ability, over sustained periods of physical activity, to deliver oxygen and nutrients to tissues, and to remove wastes. • Ex. Jogging, swimming, walking, circuit training.
Muscular Endurance • The muscles ability to contract against resistance over time. • Muscular endurance is when a person does reps with the same muscle or muscle group for a set of 15 or more. • Ex. Weight lifting over 15 reps, running, jogging, swimming
Muscular Strength • Muscular strength is the body's ability to produce force for a brief time span. • Ex. Weight lifting with heavy weights and low reps.
Flexibility • The ability to move joints and use muscles through their full range of motion. • Stretches should be held for 30 seconds to receive flexibility gains. Why?
Body Composition • Body composition is the ratio of lean body mass to fat mass. This is represented in a percentage. • Healthy range for men 15-18 % • Healthy range for women 22-25% • For men over 25% and women over 32% fat there is a dramatic correlation with illness and disease.
What can you do to increase your fitness level? • Assess your current activity level and find out what aspects of fitness your life hits on a consistent basis. • Find ways to implement the fitness aspects that your lifestyle lacks. Examples?
Joints • There are joints all over the body. • Joints are the point of connection between two bones or elements of a skeleton. • Joints usually, but not always allow movement. • Ex: Elbow, wrist, neck, shoulder, hip, ankle, knee, ect.
Joint Motion • Joints allow the body to move in all kinds of directions. • Flexion/Extension • (Horizontal) Adduction/ Abduction • Supination/Pronation
Flexion and Extension • Flexion: The bending of a joint between two skeletal members to decrease the angle between the members; opposite of extension. • Extension: The bending of a joint between two skeletal members to increase the angle between the members; opposite of flexion.
The gym is our friend!!! • After high school it can be difficult at times to stay active with new jobs, families, and other commitments. • How do we know we are working out effectively and efficiently?
Multi-joint lifts • Our body does not move in isolated movements, so why should we work it that way!?!?! • Think functional!
Upper Body Pulls • Vertical pulls- Works the back muscles Prime Mover: latissimusdorsi Secondary Movers: biceps, back of the deltoid, trapezius and rhomboids . • EX. Lat pull down, pull ups
Upper Body Pulls cont. Horizontal pulls- Works the back muscles with focus on the center of the back Prime mover: Latissiumsdorsi Secondary movers: Trapezius and rhomboids,(middle of back) , biceps, and back of the deltoid. • EX. Rows
Upper body pushes • Vertical push- Works primarily the front of the body. Prime Mover: Front of deltoid Secondary Movers: triceps, upper trapezius and Pectoralis Major. • Ex. Over head press, Military Press
Upper Body Pushes cont. • Horizontal push- Works primarily the front of the body Prime mover: Pectoralis Major Secondary Movers: the front of the deltoid and triceps. • Ex. Bench Press, Dumb bell Flies, push up
Horizontal Press, Vertical Press, Horizontal Pull or Vertical Pull • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=waeCyaAQRn8 • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T78xCiw_R6g&feature=relmfu • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ihvdd0rPTiU&feature=relmfu • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=boxbOSGwD4U • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xl7VzggkUlg • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CoypEjfXgUo • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rJX5MKacR6M
Lower body • Squats- Squats are the multi-joint lift for the lower body. They work primarily the quadriceps and glutes with secondary help from the hamstrings and calf muscles. • Squats can be made more difficult by changing the level of balance and stability and also by adding weight. • Ex. Lunges, walking lunges, reverse lunges
Lower Body Continued • Dead Lifts: Dead lifts work the posterior chain. This would include the glutes, hamstrings and low back. • Romanian Dead Lift (RDL): More of a squatting motion where knee flexion and extension is use to help more the weight. • Stiff Leg Dead Lifts (SLDL): Knees are flexed slightly into position and the upper body hinges at the hips. This takes the quads out of the movement.
Isolation Exercises • For general fitness isolation exercises are not needed. • Isolation exercises are exercises used to isolate one muscle at a time.
What is the core? • Your abdominals right????? • Yes but there are more….. It also includes the lats, traps, lower back, hamstrings and glutes • Your core consists of all the muscles that attach to your spine. • The core helps to create a solid base for movement, good posture, and makes a person more efficient in their movements.
Engaging the core • The core muscles must be engaged (contracted) with every rep of every set of every exercise. • This creates a strong base and support. • EX. Shooting a cannon off of a canoe VS a war ship. • With a strong base and efficient movement, a person is less likely to get injured, can generate more force when weight training, increase their speed when running and make every workout more efficient.
Abdominal Core Muscles • Transverse Abdominis (TVA)-The deepest of the abdominal muscles, this lies under the obliques (muscles of your waist). It acts like a weight belt, wrapping around your spine for protection and stability. Target Exercise: Plank • External Obliques-These muscles are on the side and front of the abdomen, around your waist.Target Exercise: Arm Sweep • Internal Obliques-These muscles lie under the external obliques, running in the opposite direction.Target Exercise: Crossover Crunch • Rectus Abdominis-The Rectus Abdominis is a long muscle that extends along the front of the abdomen. This is the 'six-pack' part of the abs that becomes visible with reduced body fat. Target Exercise: Crunch • Erector Spinae -The erector spinae is actually a collection of three muscles along your neck to your lower back. Target Exercise: Back Extension
Stability • The more stable a person is, the less the core and other joints have to stabilize. • EX. Standing military press vs. Seated military press. • Which would create more stress on the body and why? • Extreme: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ceyr-rPSjYA • Practical: http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=PI9Kvk_HMO8
Other examples of exercises • Crunch on a floor vs on a plyo ball • Leg Press vs Squats • Squats vs lunges • Squats vs Squats on balance board • Bench Press vs Push up • Lat pull down vs Pull up • Squat vs single leg squat • Barbell bench vs dumbbell bench • 4 point plank vs a 2 point plank
Path of least resistance • The body naturally wants to move through the path of least resistance. • This means it wants to try to alter its angles to recruit more muscle to make movements easier. • This makes it important to focus on our movements and not deviate from our strict form. • http://fitnessexercisewellness.wordpress.com/2012/07/29/flexibility-and-postural-distortion/
Kinetic Chain • The kinetic chain is the idea that the body moves through a chain of events and each event alters the next event in any given movement. • EX: If a person has tight calves when they perform a squat they will not be able to keep their heels flat on the ground. This will cause them to squat with their knees protruding forward while on their toes. This will place the stress of the movement on their quads with minimal muscle recruitment from the glutes. The nervous system gets used to this movement pattern and this will then create a muscle imbalance between the quadriceps and the glute muscles. If the glute muscles become weak the internal rotators of the legs will begin to pull the knees together. This is why you see many lifters in the gym squat on their toes with their knees coming together. Their kinetic chain is thrown off causing these movement patterns.
The Nervous System • The nervous system contracts muscles in a specific order during movement • As the body becomes accustom to improper movement patterns, the nervous system adapts and caters to those nervous pathways. • Once this happens the body must be trained to relearn the proper firing order of specific muscles during movement • The nervous system is similar to a path in the woods. If a certain path is rarely walked on weeds and other obstructions will make it more difficult navigate this path. A person then finds another, easier path. The nervous system works the same way.
How Often Should I Lift? • Your body needs at least 48 hours of rest • If you work out only a specific body part, you can lift on back to back days as long as you are not lifting with the same muscle groups. • Rest days are so important because this is when adaptation occurs and a person achieves the gains they are looking for.
The FITT Principal • Frequency- How often. • Intensity- How much. • Time- How Long. • Type- What kind.
Jim is following a routine where he alternates his resistance training by doing upper body one day then lower body the next. He takes off on the weekends and also on Wednesday. He does 3 exercises each day he works out and performs 15 reps for three sets on each. His work outs usually last around 40 minutes.
Frequency- Twice a week for upper and lower body. • Intensity- Three exercises for three sets at 15 reps • Time- 40 minutes • Type- Resistance training. Muscular endurance.
Cardiovascular Fitness • Cardiovascular fitness can be worked many different ways. • Through everyday routines, long distance running, jogging, house chores, interval training, swimming, circuits ect.
The “Fat Burning Zone” Myth • A lot of cardiovascular machines have a “fat burn” setting in which the person does cardiovascular work at a low to moderate intensity. This can be very misleading. • Granted the body will pull the highest percent of calories from fat at this level, the total number of calories burned will increase as the intensity increases.
Heart Rate • Resting Heart Rate- The amount of times a persons heart beats per minute when at rest. • Maximum Heart Rate- The number of times a persons heart beats at its highest intensity level. Found by subtracting a persons age from 220. • Heart Rate Reserve- The MHR-RHR.
Training Zone • The training zone is the zone in which a person wants their heart to work. • To find the target heart rate a person should use the Karvonen Formula. • This helps a person understand how hard they are working and if this level of work is appropriate for their fitness goals.
Karvonen Formula • 1. Maximum Heart Rate (MHR) = 220- your age2. Heart Rate Reserve (HRR)= Maximum Heart Rate - Resting Heart RateOnce you have your Heart Rate Reserve, you can calculate your training heart rate:3. (.85HRR) + RHR = Upper end of the training zone4. (.50HRR) + RHR = Lower end of the training zoneExample: To calculate the training heart rate of a 35 year old person with a resting heart rate of 70:Maximum Heart Rate: 220-35=185 bpm (beats per minute)Heart Rate Reserve= 185-70=115 bpmHigh End of the Training Heart Rate: (115*.85) + 70 = 168 bpmLow End of the Training Heart Rate: (115*.50) + 70 = 128 bpm"
Practice • A 34 year old man with a RHR of 60 wants to work at a moderate intensity level. What will be his Training zone? • A 19 year old college lacrosse player with a resting heart rate of 54 wants to find out his training zone. Calculate that for this person.
Practice 1 • 1. 220-34= 186 MHR • 2. 186-60= 126 HRR • 3. 126(.85)+60= 167 • 4. 126(.5)+60= 123 • 5. Answer= 123-167
Practice 2 • 1. 220-19= 201 • 2. 201-54= 147 • 3. 147(.85)+ 54= 178.95 • 4. 147(.5)+ 54= 127.5 • 5. Answer= 128-179