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  2. Raffaella Mannori 2013-2014 THE BIRTH OF DRAMA

  3. Raffaella Mannori 2013-2014 MYSTERY PLAYS

  4. Raffaella Mannori 2013-2014 MYSTERY PLAYS The history of English dramabegins with the elaboration of the ecclesiasticalliturgy;The rituals of Christian churchat Christmas and Easterwereinherentlydramatic ( mutuallyansweringdialoguesbetween the priest and the choir);Thisliturgicaldrammoved out of the church , first into the churchyard and theninto the market place ;Once outside the churchvernacularousted Latin and the story elements include the wholerange of sacredhistory from thecreation to the Last Judgement;Liturgicaldramagave way to plays in English, performed in the open , notrelated to liturgybutstillreligious in subjectmatters;Theirorganisation and financingpassedintolayhands :tradeguildstook over the sponsoring of the plays

  5. Raffaella Mannori 2013-2014 MYSTERY PLAYS

  6. Raffaella Mannori 2013-2014 Morality PLAYSTheydiffer from MYRACLE PLAYS becausetheydidn’t deal with biblical stories but with personifiedabstractions of virtues and vices, whostruggle for man’ssoul;Theydeveloped in the 15° century ;Other common themeswere THE DANCE OF DEATH ( in which Death comes and summonsall, high and lowalike) and the SEVEN DEADLY SINS

  7. Raffaella Mannori 2013-2014 EVERYMAN

  8. Raffaella Mannori 2013-2014 EVERYMANEVERYMANissummoned by death to make long journey from whichthereis no return ;he looks for friends to accompanyhim , butneither FELLOWSHI and GOOD DEEDS are willing to actas guide.

  9. Raffaella Mannori 2013-2014 THE INTERLUDEA kind of secularmorality play with comic and realisticelements;a sort of playletwhichoiginatedas a performance between the courses of a banquet;itmarked the transiction from medievalreligiousdrama to Tudor seculardrama

  10. Raffaella Mannori 2013-2014 Elisabethanplayhouses

  11. London’s permanent theatres The building of permanent playhouses in London marked a break with the past. The beginning of the plays was announced by the hoisting of a flag and the blowing of a trumpet Raffaella Mannori 2013-2014

  12. SOME IMPORTANT DATES Towards the end of the 16th century, several theatres were built. The Curtain (by James Burbage, 1577) The Rose (by Henslowe, 1587) The Swan(by Francis Langley, 1595) The Globe(by Richard Burbage, 1599) The Fortune(by Henslowe, 1600) At the end of the reign of Elisabeth there were 11 theatres in London, including public and private houses The Elisabethan theatrical world 1558-1642 ( in which theatres were closed down by the Puritans who controlled the City of London) The first permanent public theatre :The Theatre (by James Burbage, 1576) Raffaella Mannori 2013-2014

  13. OBJECTIONS TO PLAYHOUSES Respectablepeople and officers of the Church often made complaints of the growingnumners of play-actors : the playswereoftenlewd and profane; the play-actorswereoftenvagrants, irresponsible and immoralpeople; the taverns and disreputablehouseswereoftenfound in the neighbourhood of the theatres; theatreitselfwas a public danger in the ay of spreadingdiseases; the streetswereovercrowdedafterperfomances and so crimesoccured in the crowd and beggarsinfested the theatresection Elisabeth ‘s policy was to compromise sheregulatedabusesbutallowed the theatre to thrive. In 1576 oneoredrprohibitdalltheatrical performances within the city bounderies Thisbanishmentwasnot a misfortnebut a cause of immediate growth : across the ivertherewas room or asmanythaetresaspeopledesired. Raffaella Mannori 2013-2014

  14. The Architecture of Theatres The playhouses: were round or octagonal in shape; were 12 metreshigh; had a diameter of 25 metres; had a rectangular stage. Raffaella Mannori 2013-2014

  15. Internal layout The same basic structure consisted of: a stage partially covered by a thatched roof supported by two pillars and projected into a central area. Raffaella Mannori 2013-2014

  16. Internal layout The structureincluded threetiers of galleriesaround the stage with actor’sdressing room at the back. Raffaella Mannori 2013-2014

  17. Raffaella Mannori 2013-2014 Elisabethanplayhouses

  18. Raffaella Mannori 2013-2014 Elisabethanplayhouses

  19. The audience The spectators ate and drank during the performance. They freely expressed their emotions with laughter or tears. They had a relish for language and long speeches. Raffaella Mannori 2013-2014

  20. The audience Theywereeager for sensation and overwhelmingemotion. Theylovedmetaphor and extremes. Theyenjoyedthrills and horror. Theylovedchronicles and historyplayswith heroicdeeds(strong national feeling). Raffaella Mannori 2013-2014

  21. The actors Actors had to join a company of a prominent figure and bear hislivery and arms (The Chamberlain’s Men of Elizabeth I and the King’s Men of James I). Theatrical companies weregraduallytransformed from irregularassociations of men dependent on the favour of a lord to stable business organisations Raffaella Mannori 2013-2014

  22. The actors An actor’sshareholdingdepended on the sum he invested to buyprops and costumes of which he was joint owner. They : share in the profits and the expenses; handle the financialquestions; hire extra stff; decide which play to perfom; wok as stage- hands Raffaella Mannori 2013-2014

  23. The actors They had to vary their repertoire. They had no more than two weeks to prepare a new play. They often found themselves playing several roles in the same performance. They should have excellent memory. Raffaella Mannori 2013-2014

  24. Femaleroles Companies included 5/6 boys to play femalerolesuntiltheir voices broke. Theylearntsinging, dancing, diction and femininegestures and intonation from a veryyoungage. Contemporaryaudiencesfoundthemveryconvincing. Raffaella Mannori 2013-2014

  25. THE BIRTH OF DRAMA Elisabethandramawas the result of a fusion betweentwodifferentelements : The classicaldrama of the Renaissance The domestictradition of mystery plays, moralityplays. Raffaella Mannori 2013-2014

  26. MEDIEVAL ELEMENTS Mingling of comic and tragicelements ; In the absolutedisrespect of the Aristotelianunities of time, place and action; In the concept of crime & punishment , whichwas a characteristic of moralityplays; Tragedydoesnotspring from the hostility of fate asitdoes in the Greektraditionbut from a flaw in the protagonist’spersonality. Raffaella Mannori 2013-2014

  27. CLASSICAL ELEMENTS Seneca influencedtragedy: The theme of revenge; The inevitability of Fate; The violent treatment of murder , crueltyand lust; The stoicmoralising; The supernaturalelement in the apparition of ghosts and forwardingdreams Raffaella Mannori 2013-2014

  28. QUESTIONS Whydidliturgicaldrammove out of the church? Fill in the table in the following slide about the characteristics of mystery plays and moralityplays: Whatdoes the interluderepresent in the development of English drama? What are the twosoulswhichform the Elisabethandrama ? Whatis the «blank verse»? Whenwas the end of Medievalreligiousdrama? WhichperioddidReinassaincedramaflouurish in England? Whatis the differencebetween public and private playhouses? Raffaella Mannori 2013-2014

  29. QUESTIONS Whydidliturgicaldrammove out of the church? Fill in the table in the following slide about the characteristics of mystery plays and moralityplays: Whywasmedievaldramimportant in the develoment of the genre? Whatis the «blank verse»? Whenwas the end of Medievalreligiousdrama? WhichperioddidReinassaincedramaflouurish in England? What are the maincharacteristics of the Reinaissancedrama? Whatwere the mainreasons to write for Reinnaissanceplaywrights? Whowere the «UniversityWits « and whowas the mostcelebratedamongthem? WhywasItalyoftenchosen in English playsas a background for violentcrimes and unningbehaviour? Raffaella Mannori 2013-2014

  30. MYSTERY PLAYS vs MORALITY PLAYS Raffaella Mannori 2013-2014