Ch. 19: Using Pronouns Correctly 604-627
Case • Case is the FORM that a noun or pronoun takes to show its relationship to other words in a sentence. • English has three cases: • Nominative (subject) • OBJECTIVE • Possessive
Noun cases • Noun forms are the same for nominative and objective cases. • NOM: The cannibal bit my arm off. • OBJ: I shot the cannibal. • Nouns change form in the possessive case by adding an apostrophe. • POSS: I toilet papered the cannibal’s house again.
Pronoun cases • Pronouns change forms more often. • NOM: We slept in Mr. Flint’s class. • She and Irving slept past the bell • OBJ: Mr. Flint tried to wake US up. • He kicked Irving and HER. • POSS: Mr. Flint collected OUR work. • He put HER work in the trash.
Case forms tell you: • Number – singular or plural • Person – 1st, 2nd or 3rd • Gender – Masculine, feminine or neuter
The Nominative Case(subjects & predicate nominatives) • SINGULAR • 1st I • 2nd you • 3rd he, she, it • PLURAL • 1st we • 2nd you • 3rd they
Subjects & Predicate Nominatives… • are always in the NOMINATIVE form. • HE AND I will cut your car in half. • Mr. Flint said that I should leave. • The one with the highest grade is SHE. • It was I who made the comment.
The Objective Case (DO, IO, & objects of prepositions) • SINGULAR • 1st ME • 2nd you • 3rd him, her, it • PLURAL • 1st us • 2nd you • 3rd THEM
Direct objects, Indirect objects and Objects of prepositions… • are always in the OBJECTIVE form. • My English teacher robbed ME. • He talks about giving THEM my money. • Let’s pull a prank on Irving and HER. • Did you go with Irving and HIM to see the Justin Beiber movie?
The Possessive Case • SINGULAR • 1st my, MINE • 2nd your, yours • 3rd his, her, HERS, its • PLURAL • 1st our, ours • 2nd your, yours • 3rd THEIR, theirs
Some are used as pronouns • Pronouns REPLACE nouns or other pronouns. • Mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs • Your car and MINE were stolen again. • We stole HIS yesterday. • Compared to YOURS, my dog smells good.
Some are used as adjectives • Adjectives modify nouns or pronouns. • (These are still pronouns – they replace people’s names – but they are also used to modify a noun/pronoun in the sentence) • MY car is gone! • HIS first attempt at robbery failed. • Do you remember OUR secret handshake?
Gerunds • A noun or pronoun that precedes a gerund should be in the possessive case. • Remember: a gerund is: • Verb form • Ends in –ing • Functions as a noun (it’s a thing) • You can replace it with IT
Gerund examples • THEIRwinning led to a celebration. • Winning is a thing; it is the subject. • IT led to a celebration. • My parents objected to MYworking late. • They didn’t object to ME. • They objected to IT – working. • We were thrilled by Irving’sscoring in the top 10.
Present participles • Don’t confuse gerunds with present participles. • Present participles • Are verb forms • End in –ing • But do not function as nouns (they aren’t things) • They can’t be replaced by IT
Present participle examples • We found him sitting on a bench. • We found HIM. We didn’t find SITTING. • ‘Sitting’ is not a thing. ‘Sitting’ describes a thing: ‘him.’ • He didn’t see the dodge ball until he felt it colliding with his face. • He didn’t feel ‘colliding.’ He felt IT. • ‘Colliding’ is not a thing. ‘Colliding’ describes the ball.
Appositives • An appositive is a noun or pronoun placed beside another noun or pronoun to IDENTIFY or describe it. • An easy way to remember this: appositives ADD information (positive +) • A pronoun used as an appositive is in the same CASE as the word it identifies
Appositive examples • My best friends, Irving and HE, robbed me yesterday. • “Irving and he” identifies my best friends, the subjects. So HE is in the nominative (SUBJECT) case. • My dad paid the two guys, Irving and HIM, to get my stuff back. • “Irving and him” identifies the two guys, the direct objects. So HIM is in the objective case.
We/Us with appositives • When these have appositives, try each form without the appositive to see which case to use. • (We, Us) students learned many interesting things. • The counselor talked to (we, us) students.
Pronouns in elliptical constructions • An elliptical construction is a word group from which words are MISSING. • We use these when making comparisons. • These usually begin with THAN or AS. • I can read as fast as you (can). • See how CAN is missing? That’s what makes this an elliptical construction.
Elliptical constructions • A pronoun in an elliptical construction is the same CASE as it would be if the construction were completed. • Most of us would say: • I run as fast as him. • But complete the construction by adding the VERB from the beginning of the comparison: • I run as fast as him runs ??? • Correct: I run as fast as he runs. • I run as fast as HE.
More ellipticals • Irving is a better robber than ______ • He IS a better robber than I AM. • Even my dog is smarter than ____ • My dog is smarter than HE IS. • Irving has as much money as ____ • He has as much money as WE HAVE.
Different cases, different meanings • Dan misses New York as much as her. • Verb = misses. Put that after “as.” • Dan misses NY as much as (he) misses her. • Dan misses New York as much as she. • Verb = misses. • Dan misses NY as much as she misses (it). • Or “as much as she does.”
Another example • Did Mr. Flint pay you as much as I? • Verb = pay. • Did he pay you as much as I paid (you)? • Did Mr. Flint pay you as much as me? • Verb = pay. • Did he pay you as much as (he) paid me?
Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns • SINGULAR • 1st myself • 2nd yourself • 3rd himself, HERSELF, itself • PLURAL • 1st ourselves • 2nd yourselves • 3rd THEMSELVES
Reflexive Pronouns Review • Reflexives refer to the subject of a verb and function as a complement (DO, IO, OC, PN, PA) or an object of a preposition. • Bill is not himself today. (PN) • I hurt myself. (DO) • Give yourself a pat on the back. (IO) • She would rather be by herself. (OP)
Intensive Pronouns Review • An intensive pronoun emphasizes its antecedent and has no grammatical function in the sentence. • My dad and I restored the car ourselves. • We didn’t restore ourselves. • Rather than forcing an underling to do it, I myself did the dirty work.
-self & -selves pronouns must refer to something in the sentence • Irving and myself robbed another bank. • Myself doesn’t refer to anything in the sentence. • Correct: Irving and I robbed another bank. • “How are you?”“OK. How about yourself?” • Yourself doesn’t refer to anything. • Correct: “How about you?” • Give these to Mr. Flint or (myself/me).
Who and Whom • These are different cases. • Nominative: WHO whoever • Objective: whom whomever • Possessive: whose WHOSEVER • So “who” is for subjects and PNs • “Whom” is for DO, IO, OP
Mr. Bulgrien’s method • Nominative (subject) forms: • Singular: HE WHO (whoever) • Plural: they who (whoever) • Notice how they sound familiar. • Objective forms: • Singular: HIM WHOM (whomever) • Plural: THEM whom (whomever) • They sound familiar and have Ms. • Possessive forms: • Singular: HIS WHOSE (whosever) • Plural: Their whose (whosever) • They sound familiar and have Ss.
How it works • When you have or need Who/Whom in a sentence: • 1. Find the verb after it. • 2. Put the subject of that verb first. • 3. Try plugging in HE or HIM where you need who or whom. • 4. If HE works, use WHO. If him works, use whom.
Who/Whom examples • Who did you get to take care of your cats? • Verb = did get. Subject of that: YOU. • Put subject first and plug in he/him. • You did get (him) to take care of your cats? • So it should be “WHOM did you get…” • Whom gave us that stolen money? • V = gave. Subject = … not sure? • Plug in he/him HE gave us that stolen money? • So it should be “WHO gave us…”
Try these • _____ did the expert recommend? • _____ took my Doritos? • You were arrested by ____? • The prize will go to ____-ever robs the most banks. • Yes, I am the one ____ cut your car in half. • ____ do you think will win the Super Bowl? • Irving is ____ I think will be valedictorian.