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Fertility - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Fertility . Measurement Stylized Facts Determinants. Measurement. Crude birth rate: CBR = births/pop (000s). Measurement (cont). Total fertility rate:. Age-Specific Fertility Rates. Mean Age at Childbearing. Calculation. II. Stylized Facts.

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Presentation Transcript
fertility
Fertility
  • Measurement
  • Stylized Facts
  • Determinants
measurement
Measurement

Crude birth rate: CBR = births/pop (000s)

measurement cont
Measurement (cont)

Total fertility rate:

ii stylized facts
II. Stylized Facts
  • In the West fertility decline began in the 18th and 19th Centuries and was relatively gradual.
  • In the developing world births declined later but faster. CBR chart.
  • Fertility decline has resulted from both a decline in marital fertility and a rise in marriage ages.
ii stylized facts cont
II. Stylized Facts (cont)
  • Most Western countries experienced a sustained post-World War II baby boom. For US baby boom was 1946-1964.
  • The connection between fertility and GNP/N was relatively weak in the past but less so now.
iii determinants
III. Determinants
  • Supply factors

Age at marriage

Age at onset of menarche (nutrition)

Social and cultural factors

iii determinants cont
III. Determinants (cont)
  • Demand factors

Value of children

income effects

child labor

old age support

Cost of children

direct

opportunity cost

child mortality

iii determinants cont1
III. Determinants (cont)
  • Control

Contraceptive knowledge

Contraceptive technology and cost

  • Other

Child mortality (replacement)