CONCEPTION: • Each month a woman’s ovaries release a mature egg. • A woman’s egg is equal to 1/250th inch in diameter. In contrast, a male sperm equals 1/8000th inch in diameter. b. The egg travels through the fallopian tube to the uterus. Typically this takes 3 to 4 days to arrive.
If the egg is to be fertilized it is done so in the fallopian tube. • While the egg is traveling through the fallopian tube, the uterine lining is preparing to receive the fertilized egg. e. The fertilized egg becomes a zygote within 36 hours. Cell division begins. If unfertilized, the egg disintegrates and it is expelled during the menstrual cycle.
When the fertilized mass of cells arrives in the uterus, the mass, now known as a blastocyst attaches itself to the wall of the uterus. Implantation occurs within 4 to 5 days after fertilization. • The process of the attachment itself, is called implantation. • Roughly 4 days to 2 weeks the blastocyst is in the process of becoming an embroyo.
The attachment that holds the embryo to the wall of the uterus develops into an organ called the placenta. • About 25 days from fertilization, a cord develops between the embryo and the placenta. This is known as the umbilical cord. • The umbilical cord contains blood vessels that carry nutrients and oxygen from the placenta to the embryo, and wastes from the embryo to the placenta.
The placenta acts as a filter between the mother’s bloodstream and the embryo’s bloodstream. • Many different substances can pass through this filter, including alcohol, drugs, and the chemicals in smoke. • The developing embryo is enclosed in a bag of tissue called the amniotic sac. The fluid within this sac is called the amniotic fluid. This fluid acts as a shock absorber and helps keep the embryo’s temperature constant
At the end of the second month of pregnancy ( 8 weeks), the embryo is about 1.2 inches long • (about 3 centimeters) and has recognizable features such as eyes, ears, hands, and feet; from this point on until birth, it is now known as a fetus.
FACTS ABOUT PREGNANCY AND CHILDBIRTH • Trace the journey of the egg in a woman’s body ovary to fallopian tube to uterus. From there, if fertilized, the egg will embed itself in the uterus, if not, then there will be menses or menstruation. 2. How long does the egg’s journey take in the fallopian tube? 3 to 4 days.
3. Trace the journey of the sperm cells from ejaculation to conception: Ejaculation is from the penis into the vagina, the sperm then swim past the cervix to the uterus and on to the fallopian tubes. (Fertilization takes place in the fallopian tubes) • How many hours is the fertilized egg a zygote? Answer: 36 • How long is the life of a blastocyst? From 4 days to 2 weeks.
How many weeks is the embryo stage? 2 weeks to 2 months or about 6 weeks total. • From 8 weeks to delivery it is known as a fetus. • List three possible reasons for infertility in women: STD/STI, endometriosis, and ovarian cancer. • List two possible reasons for infertility in men: STD/STI and mumps.
In pregnancy, how long is a trimester? How many trimesters are there in a pregnancy? Answer: 3 months = 1 trimester and there are 3 trimesters. • List three characteristics of the fetus during each trimester: 1st trimester - heartbeat (1st month) brain waves ( 2nd month) sex is determined (3rd month)
Second Trimester- movement (4th month) weighs about 1 pound (5th month) can kick and cry (6th month) Third Trimester- can grip hands (7th month) extra layer of fat develops (8th) birth!!!!! (9th month)
What occurs during each stage of labor? How long does each stage last? 1st stage: contractions, cervix dilates to 10 cms. Effacement or thinning of the cervix occurs. 2nd stage: birth – crowning of the head, if feet first it is called a breech birth. IF opening is too small, the doctor may do an episiotomy which is a cutting of the perineum. 3rd stage: delivery of the placenta or the afterbirth.
What is a Cesarean (C-section)? It is taking the baby out through the abdomen, usually due to a breech birth. 14. What is colostrum? It is the fluid released by the breast before lactation (milk production). This is lots of good stuff full of vitamins and other things. If mother is unable to produce milk right away, the doctor may give her a shot of prolactin to stimulate milk production
COMPLICATIONS DURING PREGNANCY & CHILDBIRTH Ectopic Pregnancy - Ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy that occursoutside of the uterus. The embryo becomes implanted in the fallopian tube or another location in the abdomen. Symptoms include cramping, severe abdominal pain and spotting. Surgery often is needed to remove the embryo Toxemia of pregnancy - Toxemia of pregnancy is a condition characterized by a rise in the pregnant female's blood pressure, swelling, and leakage of protein in the urine. Untreated toxemia can result in death of the female or the developing baby
Miscarriage (spontaneous abortion) - miscarriage is the natural way of ending a pregnancy before a baby has developed enough to survive on its own. Miscarriages occur most often during the first trimester. They may be caused by a defect in the fetus or a medical condition of the fetus or pregnant female. Signs of miscarriage include cramping, severe pain, spotting and bleeding. Stillbirth - Stillbirth is a fully developed baby born dead. Stillbirth may be caused by a defect in the baby or a medical condition of the baby or pregnant female.
More information about Cesarean section (C-section) Cesarean section is a procedure in which a baby is removed surgically from the mother. A physician makes a surgical incision through the mother's abdomen and uterus and removes the baby. A cesarean may be performed if an unborn baby is too large to pass through the mother's pelvis or is not positioned correctly. Or the physician may determine that a vaginal delivery may be dangerous to the health of the mother or the baby. Recovery time from a cesarean delivery is often longer than recovery from a vaginal delivery.
The Rh Factor Rh Positive (Rh+) Blood that contains a certain group of proteins. This occurs in 85% of the population. Rh Negative (Rh-) 15% of the population has blood that lacks these proteins.
An example of the RH factor: If a father is an RH+ and the mother is an RH- the fetus may inherit the Rh+ trait from the father. Thus their blood will be Rh+. During delivery, Mom's blood responds to the fetus/baby's blood as if it were a foreign substance and builds up antibodies against it and will attack this foreign substance due to it's incompatibility. This does not and will not affect the first baby. However, on the next pregnancy, antibodies in the Mom's blood attack the RBC's (red blood cells) of an RH+ fetus. This baby will need a blood transfusion as soon as it is born. How to correct??? After the birth of the first baby, Mom can be given an injection to prevent antibodies from forming.
Amniocentesis - done at 16th to 20th week to examine the chromosomes, study the body chemistry and determines sex of the fetus. Chorionic Villi Sampling - small piece of the chorion is removed and examined for possible genetic defects. Done the 8th week of fetal development. Post-partum depression occurs after the baby is born in Mom. This is normal for a week or two, beyond that maybe Mom should seek help. PREGNANCIES WHICH END BEFORE BIRTH Approximately 25% of all conceptions end in a miscarriage sometimes called a spontaneous abortion. The fetus dies and is expelled naturally from the woman's body.