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RF Matching. Network. Capacitance. Thermocouple feedthrough. Manometer. O-ring joint. To. Flow Controller. pump. Oxygen. silicon substrate holder. Flow Controller. Argon. Heater wire feedthrough. Bubbler for Titanium (IV) Isopropoxide. Experimental Methods. Motivation.

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Sputtering and thermal effects on the titania si interface

RF Matching

Network

Capacitance

Thermocouple

feedthrough

Manometer

O-ring joint

To

Flow Controller

pump

Oxygen

silicon substrate

holder

Flow Controller

Argon

Heater wire

feedthrough

Bubbler for

Titanium (IV) Isopropoxide

Experimental Methods

Motivation

Experimental Apparatus

Heatable waterbath

  • Ar bubbled through Ti(IV)isopropoxide (5 sccm) introduced downstream from O2 (20 sccm) plasma

  • XPS/SEM/AES analysis performed on Phi-5800

  • XRD analysis done on Brüker D-8 Discover X-ray diffraction system with a Cu X-ray source

  • Remote-PECVD using 10 W CW plasmas or pulsed plasmas using 250 W 4% duty cycle with 10 ms on-time

  • Annealing performed in vacuum sealed ampoules

  • SiO2 is reaching its limit as a gate oxide and a new high-k dielectric must be found to take its place in future IC devices.

  • TiO2 and other group IVB oxides have many favorable qualities as a future gate oxide.

  • Many questions still remain about the effects of current Si processing techniques on the metal oxide/Si interface.

Sputtering of TiO2 on Si(100)

  • PECVD TiO2 films behave much like single crystals, i.e. TiO2 is reduced to Ti2O3 and TiO upon sputtering.

  • Films reach steady state Ti:O ratio of 2:3 in the bulk of film.

  • Ti:O ratio rises sharply at the Si interface.

  • Titanium silicide forms at interface upon sputtering.

Annealing of TiO2 on Si(100)

  • No noticeable change is seen in film upon annealing of TiO2 up to 850 ºC except for the growth of an SiO2 layer.

  • At 900 ºC Ti2O3 is noted in the Ti 2p peak.

  • At 950 ºC TiO and Ti2O3 found in the Ti 2p region.

  • The surface is ruptured exposing regions of high SiO2 content.

Acknowledgments

  • Fisher Group Members

  • National Science Foundation

Sputtering and Thermal Effects on the Titania/Si Interface

Patrick R. McCurdy, Laura Sturgess, Sandeep Kohli, and Ellen R. Fisher, Colorado State University

SEM/SAM of Annealed TiO2 Films

a)

b)

5 mm

5 mm

5 mm

10 mm

SEM—as deposited

SEM—850oC anneal

c)

d)

20 mm

20 mm

20 mm

20 mm

SEM—950oC anneal

SAM of Si—950oC anneal