CREATIVITY FOR ENGINEERING Filippo Silipigni Fondazione Politecnico di Milano
Creativity for Engineering Milano 12 Marzo 2015 Filippo Silipigni Fondazione Politecnico di Milano
Centro di Competenza per l’Innovazione Sistematica The Italian Centre of competence for Systematic Innovation unites teachers, researchers and experts who aim to further research, disclose and offer knowledge on TRIZ and on technological innovation to enterprises, institutions and individuals. • Actors: • Fondazione Politecnico di Milano (coordinatore) • Politecnico di Milano • Università degli Studi di Bergamo • Università degli Studi di Firenze • PIN Scrl, Servizi didattici e scientificiper l'università di Firenze • IRCrES-Cnr di Torino (2008) www.innovazionesistematica.it firstname.lastname@example.org
1950 1990 1900 1930 Context Increase productivity Ensure quality Optimize innovation Trends Actors Fulfilling demands Competition fighting Managing complexity Issues Structurizing work Robustness of procedures Optimizing creativity Innovation efficiency Concerns Lean Six Sigma TRIZ Leading Theory Source: Denis Cavallucci
10,000 “If we knew what we were doing, it wouldn’t be called research, would it?” — Albert Einstein 3000 Raw Ideas (Unwritten) 1000 300 Ideas Submitted Number of Ideas 125 Small Projects 100 9 Early Stage Development 10 4 Major Development 1.7 Launches 1 Success 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Stages of New Product Development Source: G. Stevens and J. Burley, “3000 Raw Ideas = 1 Commercial Success!” Research•Technology Management, 40(3): 16-27, May-June, 1997. Fromrawideasto success products From rawideas to success products Whoisgoingtopayfor the resourcesspent on the 99% uselessideas?!?
Goal: Improve the efficiency of Innovation Processes Reduce or eliminate waste of resources (time, money…) for useless trials and errors Develop one valuable solution is much better than many ideas to be validated Manage complexity of modern systems Innovation: Main Goals & Obstacles • Obstacles: • Trial & Error: lack of a structured approach • Psychological Inertia • Design conflicts Product Maturity $+ Time Traditional Investment / Return Curve $- TRIZ Investment / Return Curve
Problem solving approaches High School: What does it happen by mixing Sulfuric Acid with Calcium Hydroxide ? What would you suggest? Let’s try and see?!?
Problem solving approaches Type of problem: chemical Model of the problem: H2SO4 + Ca(OH)2 Tool: laws of chemistry, oxide-reduction Model of the solution: CaSO4 + 2 H2O Solution: Calcium Sulfate + Water
Psychological Inertia “It is difficult to find a black cat in a dark room especially when the cat is not there.” “You’ve got to kiss a lot of frogs before you find your princess...” Solution Space Ideal Solutions (benefits/costs) TRIZ Random Methods Brainstorming Synectics Reframing Lateral thinking ...
Design Conflicts Optimal solution… Evaluation Par. 2 or compromise… Evaluation Par. 1 www.tetris-project.org
ТеорияРешенияИзобретательскихЗадачTheory of Inventive Problem Solving Genrich Altshuller (1926-1998) Analysis of hundreds of thousands inventive solutions • 99% of inventions use already known solution principle • Less than 1% are really pioneering inventions • Breakthrough solutions emerge from resolving contradictions • Inventors and strong thinkers use patterns • Creative problem solving patterns are universal • Creative ideas can be produced in a systematic way
System Requirements Evaluation Par. 2 Evaluation Par. 1 Contradictions Postulate 2 System evolution implies the resolution of contradictions, i.e. conflicts between a system and its environment or between the components of the system itself • Conclusions for practice: • To solve a problem we should first discover underlying contradictions • To achieve maximum benefits, contradictions should be resolved, not compromised • Overcoming contradictions is a driving force behind technology evolution. Resolving contradictions instead of compromising or optimizing, results in breakthrough solutions
System Requirements Evaluation Par. 2 Evaluation Par. 1 TRIZ-Theory of Inventive Problemsolving Postulate 2 • System evolution implies the resolution of contradictions (7 Separation Principles and 40 Inventive Standards) Fabricintegrity Dynamization Comfort to insert the thread Problems from different domains, sharing the same contradiction, can be solved by means of the same solving principles
System Requirements Evaluation Par. 2 Evaluation Par. 1 TRIZ-Theory of Inventive Problemsolving Postulate 2 • System evolution implies the resolution of contradictions (7 Separation Principles and 40 Inventive Standards) Covering Dynamization Ease to transport Problems from different domains, sharing the same contradiction, can be solved by means of the same solving principles
System Requirements Evaluation Par. 2 Evaluation Par. 1 TRIZ-Theory of Inventive Problemsolving Postulate 2 • System evolution implies the resolution of contradictions (7 Separation Principles and 40 Inventive Standards) Ease to insert Dynamization Surfacecontinuity Problems from different domains, sharing the same contradiction, can be solved by means of the same solving principles
TRIZ Applications Problem Solving Technical Problems Troubleshooting Inventive Problem Solving Failure Prevention Management Conflicts New Business Concepts • Fields • Product development • Industrial research • Scientific research • Industrial strategy • Non technical applications… World Wide status of TRIZ perceptions and uses www.etria.net • Target: • Products • Processes • Where: • Big companies • Small and Medium Enterprises • University Non-Technical Problems Maturity Assessment Technology Forecasting
System Operator FUTURE PRESENT PAST SUPERSYSTEM SYSTEM SUBSYSTEMS
SUPERSYSTEM SYSTEM SUBSYSTEM PAST PRESENT FUTURE System Operator
System Operator: exemplary applications, resource analysis FUTURE PRESENT PAST Customers, partners, suppliers, government, competitors, insurance companies, banks, etc. SUPERSYSTEM A company SYSTEM Management, product development unit, infrastructure, physical assets, etc. SUBSYSTEMS
System Operator: exemplary applications, choosing the right problem to solve FUTURE PRESENT PAST What should an element of the supersystem do in order that the system… SUPERSYSTEM What should the system do in order to… What if the problem was not solved… SYSTEM What should be done in advancein order to prevent… What should a subsystem do in order that the system… SUBSYSTEMS
Centro di Competenza per l’Innovazione Sistematica Senior Teacher: Niccolò Becattini – Politecnico di Milano Gaetano Cascini – Politecnico di Milano Francesco Saverio Frillici – Università degli Studi di Firenze Daniele Regazzoni – Università degli Studi di Bergamo Davide Russo - Università degli Studi di Bergamo Filippo Silipigni – Fondazione Politecnico di Milano Piazza Leonardo da Vinci, 32 20133 Milano – Italy Tel. +39 02 2399 9107 www.innovazionesistematica.it email@example.com
Web Resources Web Sites: http://www.innovazionesistematica.it (Italian Center of Competence for Systematic Innovation) http://www.apeiron-triz.org (Italian TRIZ Association) http://www.etria.net/ (European TRIZ Association) http://www.matriz.ru (International TRIZ Association) http://www.aitriz.org/ (Altshuller Institute for TRIZ) http://www.triz-journal.com/ (TRIZ journal) http://www3.sympatico.ca/karasik/ (anti-Triz Journal) http://www.gnrtr.com http://www.triz.co.kr/TRIZ/intro.html http://www.trizminsk.org/ http://www.tetris-project.org/ http://www.thinking-approach.org http://www.jlproj.org/ http://comcontriz.byethost7.com/letters.htm Mailing List: TRIZ Topica (www.topica.com)
Energy Resources:- Energy in the system- Energy from the supersystem- Potential energy- Dissipated energy Spatial Resources:- Empty space, encapsulating - Other dimensions- Shape- Size (1D, 2D, 3D) Information Resources:- Inherent properties- Mobile information- Temporary information- Redundant information Material Resources:- Waste flow- Cheap materials- Substance characteristics- Void Time Resources:- Parallel working- Preliminary action/counteraction- Reworking- Frequency of action Specific situation Postulate 3 Each stage of evolution of a system takes place in a specific environment (context, situation) which influences the evolution (transformation) of the system and provide specific resources • Conclusions for practice: • Good solutions must (first of all) take into account the resources available in the specific situation
Use of resources Postulate 3 Example: Sparkling water bottles can be thin and simply shaped compared to still water bottles thanks to the CO2 pressure.