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Fall Protection in Construction
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  1. Fall Protection in Construction §1926.500 Subpart M

  2. Objectives In this course, we will discuss the following: • Emphasis on fall protection • Subpart M requirements • Applying fall protection standards to construction sites

  3. Construction Fatalities (FY 2003-2008) Other Crushed By Electrocuted Struck By Falls 5-Year Total: 130 Fatalities

  4. Construction Fatalities Other Crushed By Struck By Electrocuted Falls FY 2008: 17 Fatalities - 7 from Falls

  5. Subpart M – Fall Protection 1926.500-503 • Exception • Covers all fall hazards except specific requirements found in: • Subpart L – Scaffolds • Subpart N – Certain cranes and derricks • Subpart R – Steel erection • Subpart S – Tunneling operations • Subpart V – Power transmission and distribution • Subpart X – Stairways and ladders (cont…)

  6. Subpart M – Fall Protection 1926.500(a)(1) • Exception • The provisions of this subpart do not apply when employees are making an inspection, investigation, or assessment of workplace conditions prior to the actual start of construction work or after all construction work has been completed.

  7. Fall Exposure: Then and Now ... • 1969 Construction Est. fall exposure • Drip edge = 11′ • Roof peak = 16′ • 2008 Construction Est. fall exposure • Drip edge = 23′ • Roof peak = 38′

  8. Fall Protection Requirements Steel Erection 15′ Scaffolds 10′ Construction Sites 6′ General Industry 4′

  9. Duty to Have Fall Protection 1926.501(a) • Employer required to provide fall protection systems • Employer shall determine if the walking/working surfaces on which its employees are to work have the strength and structural integrity to support employees safely

  10. Should he have fall protection?

  11. Overhand bricklaying Low-slope roofs Steep roofs Pre-cast concrete erection Residential construction Wall openings Other walking and working surfaces Unprotected sides, edges Leading edges Hoist areas Holes Formwork, reinforcing steel Ramps, runways Excavations Dangerous equipment Fall Protection Required 1926.501(b)(1)-(15)

  12. Unprotected sides, edges Fall Protection Required 1926.501(b)(1)

  13. Leading edges Fall Protection Required 1926.501(b)(2)

  14. Hoist areas Fall Protection Required 1926.501(b)(3)

  15. Fall Protection Required 1926.501(b)(4) • Holes • Includes skylight floor openings

  16. Formwork and reinforcing steel Fall Protection Required 1926.501(b)(5)

  17. Ramps, runways, other walkways Fall Protection Required 1926.501(b)(6)

  18. Excavations Fall Protection Required 1926.501(b)(7)

  19. Dangerous equipment Fall Protection Required 1926.501(b)(8)

  20. Overhand bricklaying Fall Protection Required 1926.501(b)(9)

  21. Low-slope roof < 4/12 pitch Steep roof > 4/12 pitch Fall Protection Required 1926.501(b)(10)-(11)

  22. Pre-cast concrete erection Fall Protection Required 1926.501(b)(12)

  23. Residential construction Fall Protection Required 1926.501(b)(13)

  24. Wall openings Fall Protection Required 1926.501(b)(14)

  25. Other walking / working surfaces Fall Protection Required 1926.501(b)(15)

  26. Fall Protection Is this correct?

  27. Falling Objects 1926.501(c) • Each exposed employee shall wear a hardhat. • Employer must take steps to prevent employees from being hit by falling objects. • Erect toe boards, screens, or guardrail systems • Erect a canopy structure • Barricade the area

  28. Methods of Fall Protection 1926.502(a)(1) • Conventional methods • Safety nets • Guardrails • Personal fall arrest systems (PFAS) Safety net

  29. Guardrail System 1926.502(b) 8 Feet Smooth Surface 42″+ 3″ No Projecting Ends 21″+ 3″ 3.5″ ¼″

  30. Guardrail System 1926.502(b) Top rail: 42″+3″ Midrail: 21″+3″ Note: Toe boards are not part of a guardrail system for fall protection

  31. Guardrails Job well done

  32. Personal Fall Arrest System No slack

  33. Personal Fall Arrest System Lots of slack! Only one attachment point!

  34. Personal Fall Arrest System Is this correct?

  35. Personal Fall Arrest System 1926.502(d) AnchorageConnectors Harness

  36. Personal Fall Arrest System 1926.502(d) • D-Rings, snaphooks, lanyards, lifelines, anchorages rated @ 5,000 pounds • No free fall more than 6′, nor contact any lower level; 3.5′ max deceleration • Provide for prompt rescue • Inspect prior to each use

  37. Personal Fall Arrest System 3’ Distance 6’ Lanyard 3.5’ Decel 1’ Harness stretch 5’ bet. D-ring and feet

  38. Personal Fall Arrest System • Body belts not allowed for fall arrest but may be used as a positioning device • Only locking type of snaphook can be used

  39. Positioning Device System 1926.502(e) • Allows an employee to be supported on an elevated vertical surface • No more than 2′ freefall • Inspected before each use • Safety belts okay for use

  40. Methods of Fall Protection 1926.502(f) • Other acceptable methods • Used under certain circumstances • Warning lines • Control access zones (CAZ) • Safety monitor • Fall protection plan

  41. Warning Lines 1926.502(f), 1926.501(b)(10) • Used on low-sloped roofs < 4/12 • Erect 6′ from alledges • Need fall protection for last 6′ • Used in combination with other systems • Developed by competent person

  42. Controlled Access Zones 1926.502(g) • Used in: • Leading edge work • Overhand bricklaying • Pre-cast concrete • Only authorized persons

  43. Safety Monitor System 1926.502(h) • Used on low-sloped roofs < 4/12 • With roof widths < 50′, can use alone • Monitor must be competent person • No other responsibilities

  44. Fall Protection Plan 1926.502(k) • Only for specific area or jobs • Leading edge work • Precast concrete erection work • Residential construction work • Used when conventional fall protection equipment is infeasible or creates a greater hazard • Designed by qualified person • Supervised by competent person

  45. Covers for Holes 1926.502(i) • Covers shall: • Withstand two times weight of expected load • Secured to prevent displacement • Marked “hole” or “cover” or color-coded

  46. Protection from Falling Objects 1926.502(j) • Toeboards • When used as falling object protection, shall be erected along the edge of the overhead walking/working surface • Withstand force of at least 50 pounds • Toeboards shall be a minimum of 3½ inches in vertical height

  47. Training Requirements 1926.503 • The employer shall: • Provide training program • Assure each employee has been trained • Provide written certification • Retrain where necessary

  48. Now let’s test what you have learned…

  49. Personal Fall Arrest Systems Is this correct?

  50. Personal Fall Arrest Systems Is this correct?