“More than 50 million people were systematically murdered in the past 100 years- the century of mass murder.” • “In sheer numbers, these and other killings make the 20th century the bloodiest period in human history.” National Geo. 2006
Where does the Word Genocide Come From? Geno- cide Cide- From the Latin word Cida, which means to kill. Geno- from the Greek word Genos, which means birth, race of a similar kind, tribe, family
What is Genocide?? “Any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, as such: • Killing members of the group. • Causing serious bodily or mental harm. • Deliberately inflicting conditions of life for physical destruction in whole or in part. • Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group • Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group." Wikepedia
Genocide in History • There are many cases of Genocide which have existed throughout our history dating back to biblical times. Genocides From 1500-1950 • The Native Canadian people(Mi’kmaw, Beothuk) • The Congo 1820-1920 • Ottoman Empire • (1932–1933) Holodomor • World War II • Mao Zedong
Native Canadian People Population declined 80-90% in the first 100 years • After the arrival of the Europeans in 1492- Native populations began to drastically decrease. • Some methods of genocide included • Murder • Infected smallpox blankets • Scalping Proclamations • Treaties • Centralization (1942) • The Indian Act (Residential Schools) 1928-1982
The Congo 21.5 million people died in Congo from 1880-1920 • The population decreased due to murder, disease, starvation. • Congo “Free State” was privately owned by King Leopold II and he started the mass murders and slave labor. • In 1908 end of Leopold’s rule
Holodomor 1932-1933 7,000,000 to 15,000,000 people, mostly Ukrainians, died • Famine was the act of Genocide committed by theSoviet Govern. • In 1932 the Soviets increased grain production 44%, which resulted in Grain Shortage- the peasants could not feed themselves. The Soviet knew this, but would not let them eat (by law) until the quota was met. • They could not travel for food. • Stalin states that “"the great bulk (of the 10 million) were very unpopular and were wiped out by their labourers."
Armenian Genocide (1915-1923) Up to 1.5 million Armenians were slaughtered • The Ottoman Empire (Turkish) existed from 1299 to 1923. They were responsible for the following: • Considered the first major genocide in modern history. • Deportation of 2,000,000 from their homeland- 1,500,000 of the men, women and children were then murdered. • 500,000 were expelled from the Armenian homeland which existed for 2,500 years. • The Turkish gov. disputes these charges 15 countries agree (France and Russia)
WORLD WAR II 1939-1945 Over 11 million People were killed. • During the Holocaust the Nazis’ killed 6million Jews, 3 million POW’s, 2 million Poles and 400,000 other “undesirables”(slaves, homosexuals and communists) The Holocaust was most predominant from previous genocides because of the cruelty, scale and efficiency of the mass murders. People were killed by: open-air shootings, by killing squads, extermination camps (gas chambers, mass shootings)
Mao Zedong killed 30 million Chinese people during his reign in 1945-1976 Although World War II is the most common Genocide that occurred during 1500-1950’s, it is very important for us to understand the other cases of Genocide that have occurred throughout our history and our World.
Genocides from 1951-Present • Cambodia(1975–1979) • Saddam Hussein's Baath Party • Rwanda 1994 • Sudan
Cambodia 1975-1979 The Khmer Rouge killed 1.7 million • The communist party Khmer Rouge ruled Cambodia from 1975-1979. They were responsible for forced labour, starvation, and execution. • This was one of the most lethal regimes of the 20th century. • This communist party killed “suspect ethnic groups”- Chinese, Vietnamese,Buddhist monks, and refugees.
Saddam Hussein’s Baath Party • In 1987-1991 (approx) the Baath Party killed 100,000 Kurds. (The Kurds are people of Indo-European origin who live mainly in the mountains and uplands where Turkey, Iraq, and Iran meet, in an area known as "Kurdistan" for hundreds of years) • The Gulf War (1990) It is estimated that 300,000 people are buried in 260 mass graves. • 1991-2003- Estimates of 500,000 to 1.2 million people were killed through bombings. • After the September 11, 2001 attacks- the US invaded Iraq-2003 Saddam was captured.
RWANDA 1994 • The Rwandan Genocide was the slaughter of an estimated 800,000 to 1,000,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus, mostly carried out by two extremist Hutu militia groups (Interahamwe and Impuzamugambi) during a period of 100 days from April 6th through mid-July 1994. • The Western and First World Countries did nothing to help this situation. • Prior to the attacks the UN did not respond to reports of the Hutu plans. • This Genocide was ended when the Tutsi rebel movement (Rwandese Political Front) lead by Paul Kagame seized power of the Hutu Government.
Rwanda 1994 • “Hutu Mobs armed with machetes and other weapons killed roughly 8,000 Tutsis a day during a three-month campaign of terror. Powerful nations stood by as the slaughter surged on despite pleas from Rwandan and UN observers” National Geographic 2006.
Sudan Civil War 1983- • Sudan signed a peace agreement in 2002- where they were accused of genocide. • Since the civil war began in 1983: • 2,000,000 people have been killed • 4, 000, 000 people have been displaced. Mukesh Kapila ( UN coordinator) has stated that "This is more than just a conflict. It is an organised attempt [by Khartoum] to do away with a group of people. The only difference between Rwanda [in 1994] and Darfur now is the numbers of dead, murdered, tortured and raped involved“.
Sudan Cont… • In 2004, it became widely known that a nomadic group Janjaweed was trying to get rid of 80 black African groups in the Darfur region. • This was is very similar to Rwanda. However professional/intellectuals are not being attacked- it is a fight between the nomads and farmers for land. • There is risk of famine and a threat to international security. • Though the violence has decreased as of 2013 it is still very dangerous.
War Crimes and Genocide • Before WWII “it was generally accepted that the horrors of war were in the nature of war”. • The Holocaust changed that belief. • Raphael Lemkin coined the term “genocide” in 1943 • Nuremburg trials were the first organized government trials for crimes against humanity. (U.S., France, Britian, USSR military tribunal) • Now these trials are most often held at the Hague (UN headquarters) or held by individual governments
Current Research Scientists continue to discover mass graves and are exhuming the remains. They try to determine the cause of death in the skeletons and then match up the bones/identity info. to determine who the victims were. Hundreds of Iraquis have been exhumed-but there are still thousands more to be found. Humans allow Genocide to continue and the “civilized” first world countries continue to look the other way…and the tragedies continue. “Will humans ever overcome the ethnic hatreds and other factors that contribute to genocide?
“Genocide is a process that develops in eight stages that are predictable but not inexorable. At each stage, preventive measures can stop it. The later stages must be preceded by the earlier stages, though earlier stages continue to operate throughout the process”. The eight stages of genocide are: Classification Organization Extermination Symbolization Polarization Denial Dehumanization Preparation
1. CLASSIFICATION: • All cultures have categories to distinguish people into "us and them" by ethnicity, race, religion, or nationality: German and Jew, Hutu and Tutsi. Bipolar societies that lack mixed categories, such as Rwanda and Burundi, are the most likely to have genocide.
2. SYMBOLIZATION • We give names or other symbols to the classifications. We name people "Jews" or "Gypsies", or distinguish them by colors or dress; and apply them to members of groups. Classification and symbolization are universally human and do not necessarily result in genocide unless they lead to the next stage, dehumanization. When combined with hatred, symbols may be forced upon unwilling members of pariah groups: the yellow star for Jews under Nazi rule, the blue scarf for people from the Eastern Zone in Khmer Rouge Cambodia.
3. DEHUMANIZATION: • One group denies the humanity of the other group. Members of it are equated with animals, vermin, insects or diseases. Dehumanization overcomes the normal human revulsion against murder.
4. ORGANIZATION: • Genocide is always organized, usually by the state, though sometimes informally (Hindu mobs led by local RSS militants) or by terrorist groups. Special army units or militias are often trained and armed. Plans are made for genocidal killings.
5. POLARIZATION: • Extremists drive the groups apart. Hate groups broadcast polarizing propaganda. Laws may forbid intermarriage or social interaction. Extremist terrorism targets moderates, intimidating and silencing the center.
6. PREPARATION: • Victims are identified and separated out because of their ethnic or religious identity. Death lists are drawn up. Members of victim groups are forced to wear identifying symbols. They are often segregated into ghettoes, forced into concentration camps, or confined to a famine-struck region and starved.
7. EXTERMINATION: • Extermination begins, and quickly becomes the mass killing legally called "genocide." It is "extermination" to the killers because they do not believe their victims to be fully human. When it is sponsored by the state, the armed forces often work with militias to do the killing. Sometimes the genocide results in revenge killings by groups against each other, creating the downward whirlpool-like cycle ofgenocide.
8. DENIAL: • It is among the surest indicators of further genocidal massacres. The perpetrators of genocide dig up the mass graves, burn the bodies, try to cover up the evidence and intimidate the witnesses. They deny that they committed any crimes, and often blame what happened on the victims. They block investigations of the crimes, and continue to govern until driven from power by force, when they flee into exile. There they remain with impunity, like Pol Pot.