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Project Based learning

Project Based learning

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Project Based learning

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  1. University of Manitoba Summer Session 2012 EDUA 5730, EDUA 5740 & EDUA 7740 Project Based learning

  2. Project Based Learning is NOT New SOCRATES 470-399 B.C. JOHN DEWEY 1859-1952 MARIA MONTESSORI 1870-1952 LEV VYGOTSKY 1896-1934 JEAN PIAGET 1896-1980 CARL ROGERS 1902 - 1987 BENJAMIN BLOOM 1913-1999 SEYMOUR PAPERT 1928-Current JEROME BRUNER 1915-Current

  3. In groups of 3 or 4, in chart form, summarize the contribution(s) each one of the men; Socrates, Dewey, Montessori, Vygotysky, Piaget, Rogers, Bloom, Papert, & Bruner, have made to project based learning. When completed, hang chart up on the wall In carousel fashion, read the other groups’ charts & reflect on what has been identified as the contributions of Socrates, Dewey, Montessori, Vygotysky, Piaget, Rogers, Bloom, Papert, & Bruner to project based learning Activity # 1

  4. 1) Standards Based (curriculum)–projects are designed to accomplish key instructional objectives that are part of the expected curriculum 2) Assessment--teachers are expected to evaluate the quality of students’ products & measure changes in student knowledge & competence as a result of project work (formative & summative) 3) Student Centered-- teachers consider carefully what decisions they make & what decisions they leave to the students ie. form & content of the final products (sandbox). 4) Collaboration--students may work in pairs or teams of up to five or six. The goal is for each student involved to make a unique contribution to the final work. Challenge 2000 Multimedia Project: Seven Elements of Project-Based Learning

  5. 5)Real World Connection--connect student projects with the world in which students live by: content selection, types of activities & / or products, or in other ways. 6) Extended Time Frame--is not a one-shot lesson. Projects extend over a significant period of time (days, weeks, months). The actual project length depends on students’ ages & the nature of the project. 7) Multimedia--students learn by creating their own multimedia project products Challenge 2000 Multimedia Project: Seven Elements of Project-Based Learning

  6. Six A’s of Project Based Learning 1. Authenticity —project comes from a problem that has meaning to the student; has personal /social value beyond school setting & might be tackled by an adult in the community 2. Academic Rigor —challenges student to think like a scientist; develops higher order thinking skills; leads to acquiring/applying knowledge to one or more content areas 3. Applied Learning —leads to acquiring & using competencies ie. technology, problem solving, communication; leads to developing organizational & self management skills; grounded in life beyond school Excerpted from Adria Steinberg, Real Learning, Real Work, Routledge, New York, 1997

  7. Six A’s of Project Based Learning 4. Academic Exploration —engages in real investigations, uses a variety of methods, media & sources; spends significant amount of time doing field-based work 5. Adult Connection —have opportunities to meet &/or work collaborate with at least one adult 6. Assessment Practices —reflects regularly on personal learning using the project’s criteria; experiences opportunities for regular assessment through a range methods ie. presentations, exhibitions & portfolios Excerpted from Adria Steinberg, Real Learning, Real Work,Routledge, New York, 1997

  8. Project Based Learning • Content • Conditions • Activities • Results Buck Institute for Education:

  9. Compelling ideas • Problems presented in their full complexity • Students finding interdisciplinary connections between ideas • Students struggling with ambiguity, complexity, & unpredictability • Real-world questions that students care about Buck Institute for Education: Content:

  10. Support student autonomy • Students community of inquiry • Coursework in a social context • Students exhibit task- & time-management behaviors • Students direct their own work & learning • Students simulate the professional work Buck Institute for Education: Conditions:

  11. Investigative & engaging • Students multi-faceted investigations over long periods of time • Students encountering obstacles, seeking resources, & solving problems • Students making their own connections among ideas & acquiring new skills • Students using authentic tools • Students getting feedback from expert sources & realistic assessment Buck Institute for Education: Activities:

  12. Real-world outcomes • Students generating complex intellectual products to demonstrate learning • Students participate in assessment • Students held accountable for competence • Students exhibiting growth in real-world competence Results: Buck Institute for Education:

  13. Activity # 2 • In small groups, take an envelop & chart template • Read each statement & decide which category it should be placed on template • When finished, turn & compare with your neighbours • Then, compare your answer with the answer key • Share your thoughts with the larger group

  14. Traditional Instruction Emphasizes Project Based Learning Emphasizes • Focus of curriculum • Content coverage • Knowledge of facts • Learning "building-block" • skills in isolation • Complex problem-solving • skills • Focus of curriculum • Depth of understanding • Comprehension of concepts • & principles • Development • Scope and sequence • Follows fixed curriculum • Proceeds block by block, unit • by unit • Narrow, discipline-based • focus • Scope and sequence • Follows student interest • Large units composed of • complex problems or issues • Broad, interdisciplinary focus Buck Institute for Education:

  15. Project Based Learning Emphasizes Traditional Instruction Emphasizes • Teaching role • Follows fixed curriculum • Proceeds block by block, • unit by unit • Narrow, discipline-based • focus • Teaching role • Follows student interest • Large units composed of • complex problems or issues • Broad, interdisciplinary • focus • Focus of assessment • Products • Test scores • Comparisons with others • Reproduction of information • Focus of assessment • Process and products • Tangible accomplishments • Criterion performances & • gains over time • Demonstration of • understanding Buck Institute for Education:

  16. Project Based Learning Emphasizes Traditional Instruction Emphasizes • Materials of instruction • Texts, lectures & • presentations • Teacher-developed exercise • sheets & activities • Materials of instruction • Direct or original sources: • printed materials, interviews, • documents, & others • Data & materials developed • by students • Use of technology • Ancillary, peripheral • Administered by teachers • Useful for enhancing teachers' • presentations • Use of technology • Central, integral • Directed by students • Useful for enhancing student • presentations or amplifying • student capabilities Buck Institute for Education:

  17. Traditional Instruction Emphasizes Project Based Learning Emphasizes • Classroom context • Students working in groups • Students collaborating with • one another • Students constructing, • contributing, & synthesizing • information • Classroom context • Students working alone • Students competing with one • another • Students receiving • information from an • instructor • Long-range goals • Breadth of knowledge • Graduates who have the • knowledge to perform • successfully on standard • achievement tests • Long-range goals • Depth of knowledge • Graduates who have the • dispositions & skills to engage • in sustained, autonomous, • lifelong learning Buck Institute for Education:

  18. Traditional Instruction Emphasizes Project Based Learning Emphasizes • Short-term goals • Knowledge of facts, terms, • content • Mastery of isolated skills • Short-term goals • Understanding & application of • complex ideas & processes • Mastery of integrated skills • Student role • Carry out instructions • Memorizer & repeater of • facts • Students receive & complete • brief tasks • Listen, behave, speak only • when spoken to • Student role • Carry out self- directed • learning activities • Discoverer, integrator, & • presenter of ideas • Students define their own • tasks & work independently • for large blocks of time • Communicate, show affect, • produce, take responsibility Buck Institute for Education:

  19. Project Based learning Engages Students • in problem solving • in higher order thinking skills • in critical thinking • to solve real problems for a real audience Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy (Anderson and Krathwohl (eds.) Source:

  20. Planning • Begin with an “Essential Question” • What is important to your students • What is the deep learning--the enduring understanding • What are the necessary skills • Standards—plan which content standards will be addressed while answering the question • Prerequisite knowledge (prior knowledge) • Prerequisite skills • Skills & knowledge to to be embedded into the project How Do I Begin?

  21. How Do I Begin? • Scheduling • Teacher and students design a timeline for project components. • Set benchmarks. • Keep it simple & age-appropriate. • Monitoring • Facilitate & mentor the process • Utilize rubrics Assessing / Evaluating • Make the assessment authentic • Vary the type of assessment used • Take time to reflect, individually & as a group • Share feelings & experiences • Discuss what worked well & what needs change

  22. “Backwards Design” (Planning with the end in mind) Wiggins, G. & McTighe, J. (1998). Understanding by Design. ASCD

  23. Cluster outcomes into precise & concise action statements • Communicate outcomes clearly to students, using language appropriate to grade level • Post in classroom • Have students personalize Indentify Desired Results

  24. Construct or co-construct criteria that will be used to judge students’ work • Define standard of performance Rich performance tasks can “bring closure to a unit of study” and “the opportunity to synthesize and apply their learning” Damian Cooper Talk About Assessment 2007.(p. 116) Determine Acceptable Evidence

  25. Consider students’ prior knowledge • Create enabling tasks (ones that enable you to see evidence of development towards the outcome & provide feedback & guidance for improvement) • Content – outcomes (what is to be covered) • Set clear goals*- content + level of thinking/doing • Level of thinking or doing – Ask yourself • Do I simply want students to be able to identify a fractional expression? • Do I want them to be able to explain addition of fractions in their own terms? • Do I want them to be able to solve fractional problems? Plan LearningExperiences

  26. Assessment Wiggins, G. & McTighe, J. (1998). Understanding by Design. ASCD McTighe J, Wiggins G (op cit)

  27. There has been eight (8) features / key characteristics of Project Based Learning identified. View the video on Project Based Learning Individually, list as many of those features you observed in the video In small groups, share & discuss your lists of identified features Compare & discuss your lists with those listed in the handout. Activity # 3

  28. 1. engages students in complex, real-world issues & problems; where possible, the students select & define issues or problems that are meaningful to them 2. requires students to use inquiry, research, planning skills, critical thinking, & problem-solving skills as they complete the project 3. requires students to learn and apply content-specific skills/standards & knowledge in a variety of contexts as they work on the project 4. provides opportunities for students to learn and practice interpersonal skills as they work in cooperative teams &, whenever possible, with adults in workplaces or the community Eight Features of Project-Based Learning

  29. 5. gives students practice in using the array of skills needed for their adult lives & careers (how to allocate time/resources; individual responsibility, interpersonal skills, learning through experience, etc.) 6. includes expectations regarding accomplishments/learning outcomes; these are linked to the learning standards & outcomes for the school/state & are stated at the beginning of the project 7. incorporates reflection activities that lead students to think critically about their experiences & to link those experiences to specific learning standards 8. ends with a presentation or product that demonstrates learning & is assessed; the criteria could be decided upon by the students Eight Features of Project-Based Learning

  30. Activity # 4 • Based on your knowledge of project-based learning: • design a project unit for a class including students who have mobility/ sensory / cognitive / giftedness issues • complete a draft copy of your project unit on the Project Planning Form (Buck Institute for Education) • Can do this either individually or in pairs or groups • Can use the template forms provided or can develop your own • Share with larger group

  31. The George Lucas Educational Foundation. Edutopia: Success Stories for learning in the Digital Age. • McLean, James E. and Lockwood, Robert E. Why We Assess Students - And How. Corwin Press, Inc. 1996. • Barth, Roland S. Learning By Heart. Jossey-Bass Education. 2001. • Buck Institute for Education. Project Based Learning for the 21st Century. • Ellis, R. Task Based Teaching in Asian Content. Asian EFL Conference. September 2006 • Ellist, T.J. & Hafner, W. (2008). Building a framework to support project-based collaborative learning experiences in an asynchronous learning network. Interdisciplinary Journal of E-Learning and Learning Objects Volume 4, pp. 167-190. • Project Based Learning. Designing Your Project. • Penuel, Bill; Korbak, Christine; Yarnall, Louise & Pacpaco, Rhandy. SILICON VALLEY CHALLENGE 2000: YEAR 5 MULTIMEDIA PROJECT REPORT. SRI International. March 2001. • Steinberg, Adria. Real Learning, Real Work. Routledge, New York, 1997. • Ullah, Linda. Project Based Learning. Nevada League of Educators onference, Los Vegas Nevada. April 2002. • Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. Understanding by design. : Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Alexandria, VA. 1998. • Wiggins, G. The futility of trying to teach everything. Educational Leadership, 47(2), 44-48, 57-59. 1989. References